Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: squamulose or peltate, forming multiple rosettes in aggregate up to 6 cm in diam. (individual rosettes 3-10 mm in diam.), lobate lobes: individual ones up to 6 mm in diam., heteromerous, adnate or with raised margins; margins: entire or broken upper surface: yellow-olive or brown upper cortex: partially developed, 12-50 µm thick; epinecral layer: on aged lobes, 7-12 µm thick medulla: with hyphal cells predominantly anticlinally arranged, cylindrical to globose, 4.5-12 µm wide; cyanobacteria distributed throughout lower cortex: 13-40 µm thick, with 1-4 rows of enlarged cells; cells: 6-18 µm in diam. Apothecia: one to several per squamule; disc: red-brown, up to 2 mm in diam., deeply urceolate or more rarely flat; exciple: 20-50 µm thick; hymenium: I+ reddish, (95-) 120-195 µm tall; subhymenium: 10-35 µm thick asci: cylindrical to obovoid, 8-spored ascospores: simple (rarely 1-septate), ellipsoid to fusiform, (15-) 18-24 (-30) x 6-10.5 (-12) µm Pycnidia: immersed conidia: fusiform, 2.5-3.5 x 1-1.5 µm Spot tests: all negative Secondary metabolites: none detected. Substrate and ecology: usually on soil, sometimes on soil over acidic rocks, occasionally in calcareous areas World distribution: western and SE North America and southern Africa Sonoran distribution: desert areas of Arizona.