Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: foliose, 2-7 cm in diam., adnate, irregularly lobate lobes: very irregular, elongate, strongly thickened (swelling markedly when wet), often anatomosing, 1-2 mm wide, 150-600 µm thick; apices: rotund, thickened, entire or lobulate upper surface: medium gray to dark gray to almost black, usually dull, heavily lamellate longitudinally (not really wrinkled) internal anatomy: with upper and lower cortices consisting of a single layer of irregularly isodiametrical cells 5-9 µm in diam., internally with loosely interwoven chains of Nostoc and hyphae lower surface: pale to medium gray, wrinkled, with scattered tufts of white hairs Apothecia: common, submarginal towards lobe tips, sessile, 1-5 mm wide disc: brown to red-brown, concave to plane margin: thalline, concolorous with the thallus, entire or lobulate, heavily wrinkled exciple: euparaplectenchymatous, 70-130 µm thick centrally hymenium: hyaline below and thinly brown above, 115-200 µm tall; paraphyses: unbranched, 1-2 µm wide, slightly inflated apically; subhymenium: pale yellow to pale brown, 50-100 µm thick asci: cylindrico-clavate, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, muriform, 3-5-septate transversely, 1-septate longitudinally, ellipsoid to subfusiform, 23-30 x 9-13 µm Pycnidia: not observed Spot tests: all negative Secondary metabolites: none detected. Substrate and ecology: common on bark of soft-barked oaks at intermediate elevations World distribution: pantropical and subtropical, occurring in North and South America, Africa, Australasia and Asia Sonoran distribution: infrequent in southern Arizona, Sinaloa, and Chihuahua. Notes: Leptogium phyllocarpum is characterized by its undulating, crisp lobes with lamellae on the upper surface, that swell considerably when wet. The only other, similar, fertile species is the rarer L. chloromelum, that is a much lighter greenish gray, more crustose, wrinkled species with a granular, rather than wrinkled or lobate thalline margin of the apothecia. Leptogium milligranum is potentially confusable as well due to its dark color, but it has granular isidia.
Thallus gray to dark black when dry, blackish when wet, foliose, adnate, thick, swelling considerably when wet; outline irregular; lobes distinct, narrow and elongated, frequently anastomosing; surface rugose, irregularly contorted and folded (plicate); lacking isidia, but sometimes lobulate along the thallus lobes and apothecial margin; apothecia common, distinctly stalked, submarginal, expanded; disk pale to deep reddish brown, initially concave but soon flattened; margin lecanorine, strongly folded (lamellate), occasionally lobulate, concolorous with the thallus, with a broad paraplectenchymatous outer thalline exciple and an inner, indistinct, thin, prosoplectenchymatous proper exciple; ascospores ellipsoid, muriform, 3-5 transversely septate, 1 longitudinally septate, 22-33 x 10-14 μm.
Substrate & Ecology: On bark or wood, rarely on rock, typically in dry habitats; common throughout the dry and lower transition zone, less frequent at higher altitudes and there typically in relatively dry, exposed habitats.
Distribution: New to Galapagos; known from Santa Cruz, San Cristóbal, Pinta, Santiago, Isabela, and Pinzón Island.
Specimens examined: Isabela Island: Volcán Alcedo, along the trail going up the E-slope, basalt rubble field to the SE-side of the trail and the barranco, 0˚24’3”S, 91˚2’35”W, 434 m, dry lowlands; basalt rubble field with scattered vegetation (Bursera graveolens, Zanthoxylum fagara, Pisonia floribunda, Senna pistaciifolia), on bark of Bursera, 9 Mar 2006, Aptroot 64962, CDS no. 31541; upper NNW-exposed slope inside the crater, 0˚27’27”S, 91˚7’23”W, 1055 m, fern-sedge zone; open vegetation with Adianthus concinnum, and scattered shrubs of Tournefortia rufo-sericea among basalt rocks, on bark of Scalesia, 5 Mar 2006, Aptroot 64875, CDS no. 31452. Pinta Island: along the trail up to the summit from the S-coast, 0˚34’22”N, 90˚45’3”W, 329 m, transition zone; open woodland of Zanthoxylum fagara, Pisonia floribunda, and few Trema micrantha; grasses and Justicia galapagana in the understory, on branch of dead Trema micrantha; sunny, wind- and rain-exposed, 27 Feb 2007, Bungartz 5863, CDS 33539; along the trail up to the summit, ca. 3 km inland from the S-coast, 0˚33’42”N, 90˚44’45”W, 161 m, lower transition zone; dense vegetation of Bursera graveolens, Croton scouleri, Scalesia baueri, and few Chiococca alba, on bark, trunk of Bursera graveolens (ca. 15 cm in diam.), SW-exposed; semi-shaded, ± wind- and rain-exposed, 25 Feb 2007, Bungartz 5679, CDS no. 33314. Pinzón Island: along the trail going up from Playa Escondida, N- to W-facing cliff above a crater, 0˚36’29”S, 90˚40’14”W, 318 m, dry transition zone with Cordia lutea, Croton scouleri, and at the bottom of the cliff also Scalesia baurii ssp. baurii, on bark, twigs, 16 Feb 2006, Aptroot 64053, CDS no. 30614. San Cristóbal Island: plain between Cerro Pelado and Cerro Partido, S of Ripioso, 0˚51’31”S, 89˚27’34”W, 372 m, transition zone; dense shrubland with Croton scouleri, Clerodendrum molle and Macraea laricifolia, on bark, branches of Croton scouleri; semi-shaded, wind- and rain-sheltered, 28 Apr 2007, Bungartz 6662, CDS no. 34898. Santa Cruz Island: along road from Bella Vista to El Garrapatero, 0˚40’24”S, 90˚14’19”W, 142 m, lower transition zone; open forest of Bursera graveolens and few Pisonia floribunda at base of lava flow, on bark, E-exposed trunk of Pisonia floribunda (ca. 10 cm in diam.); semi-shaded, wind- and rain-sheltered, 15 Oct 2006, Bungartz 5482, CDS no. 29699; at the North side of the island, along the dirt road to the ash quarry Mina Granilla Roja, 0˚36’56”S, 90˚22’3”W, 570 m, lower transition zone; dry semi-deciduous forest with Bursera graveolens and Zanthoxylum fagara, on rock, NE-exposed slope of basalt outcrop; sunny, wind- and rain-exposed, 23 Feb 2006, Bungartz 3889, CDS no. 27771. Santiago Island: ca. 7 km inland from the E-coast, ± at the same latitude as Bahía Sullivan, 0˚17’4”S, 90˚38’18”W, 192 m, dry zone; shrubland of Castela galapageia and Macraea laricifolia with occasional trees, mostly Bursera graveolens and few Pisonia floribunda, on bark of Bursera graveolens, SE-exposed; semi-shaded, wind- and rain-sheltered, 17 July 2006, Bungartz 5190, CDS no. 29403.
from: Bungartz, F. (2008) Cyanolichens of the Galapagos Islands - The genera Collema and Leptogium. Sauteria15: 139-158.