Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: foliose, ± orbicular, 2-7 (-12) cm wide, tightly or loosely adnate, with or without concentric rings, lobate, lobes: broadly flabellate or cuneate, 1-4 (-7) mm wide, contiguous to imbricate, lobulate and branched; apices: broader than interior parts of the lobes, usually incised, rounded and deflexed upper surface: usually dark lead gray when dry, bluish green to brownish black when wet, smooth, usually glossy, epruinose, sometimes with concentric, curved ridges, rarely scabrid, isidiate isidia: granular initially, becoming simple and terete (rarely flattened) and sometimes coralloid branched, scarce or forming a dense mat upper cortex: hyaline or pale yellow, 12-20 µm thick, with an epicortex cortex: hyaline to black, 12-20 µm thick medulla: white or pale yellow, loose hyphae, 30-60 µm thick lower surface: usually pale, brown or black, glabrous, rhizinate; rhizines: white, light to dark brown or black (black in Sonoran material), scarce to numerous, sometimes forming a dense hypothallus Apothecia: infrequent, laminal, irregularly orbicular, up to 1-3 (-4.5) mm wide, adnate or sessile; margin: thin, with proper one only visible in young apothecia, sometimes with white hairs (especially towards base of apothecia and hidden when viewed from above); disc: pale brownish red to black (black in Sonoran material), flat to strongly convex; exciple: hyaline or light brown, up to 110 µm thick but covered by disc; epihymenium: pale yellow or brownish or black, 4-9 µm thick; hymenium: colorless, 40-70 µm high; paraphyses: ± branched, septate, 2-5 µm thick, apically capitate; subhymenium: pale brown to almost black, up to 100 µm thick asci: narrowly clavate, 40-60 x 8-15 µm, 8-spored ascospores: , narrowly to broadly fusiform to ellipsoid, hyaline, simple, often with two oil droplets, 7-14 x 3-5 µm Pycnidia: usually laminal, immersed, ostiole dark conidia: bacilliform, 2-4 x 1 µm Spot tests: all negative Secondary metabolites: none detected. Habitat and ecology: on rocks and soil among mosses in moist habitats, but also on tree trunks (Quercus etc.) World distribution: pantropical and subtropical with a few outlying temperate to arctic localities Sonoran distribution: scattered locations in SE Arizona and south along the Sierra Madre Occidental in Sinaloa and Sonora.