Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Primary thallus: squamulose, persistent; squamules: 1-4 mm long, 1-2 mm wide, crenulately lobate along margins, greenish-gray with bluish tinge, sometimes with pruina toward lobe tips podetia: 5-35 mm tall, up to 8 mm wide, branched, twisted from the base upward, fissured longitudinally along the length; branches: anastomosing, without cups surface: mostly corticated; cortex: continuous or breaking up and disappearing in places, esorediate Apothecia: constantly present from early stages, chestnut brown to darker, larger than podetial support, solitary ascospores: ellipsoid, 10.5-18 x 3.5-5.5 micro meter Pycnidia: uncommon, on primary squamules or on tiny appressed podetial squamules, obconical, with hyaline jelly conidia: 0.5-1 x 3-4 micro meter Spot tests: K+ yellowish changing to dingy brown or K+ persistent yellow, C-, KC-, P+ deep yellow, rarely changing to red, or P-, UV- Secondary metabolites: atranorin only or with additional fumarprotocetraric acid (as minor substance). Habitat and ecology: on thin soil and roadcuts, usually in damp microhabitats World distribution: Asia, Europe, North America and South America (south), mainly temperate, western North America Sonoran distribution: common in Arizona at mid to high elevations.