Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: crustose, continuous, wrinkled and ±rimose, or ±discontinuous, composed of discrete to contiguous, convex areoles, surface: pale bluish gray Apothecia: flat or becoming moderately convex, 0.5-0.9 mm diam. disc: pink, pale orange, ±brown, purple-brown, dark brown-violet, purple-black, or brown-black, when young often with a thin white pruina on disc and margin margin: paler than disc, distinct, at first raised above disc, later level with disc, persistent exciple: laterally 50-70 µm wide, with abundant crystals (both large clumps and evenly dispersed minute ones), colorless to brown-orange to dark brown, often darker pigmented in lower part than in upper part; cell lumina: gradually enlarging towards edge, or edge with a ±distinct, 6-8 cell layers thick zone of enlarged cell lumina (up to 6 µm wide) epithecium: diffusely and unevenly orange-brown to red-brown, with a thin layer of crystals above the paraphyses hymenium: hyaline, 80-110 µm tall; paraphyses: 0.5-1 µm wide in mid-hymenium, apices not swollen or narrowly clavate, 0.8-2 µm wide, without distinct hoods of pigment hypothecium: brown-orange to brown (K+ intensifying) asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, 3- to 11-septate, acicular, straight to slightly curved, 41-71 x 2.5-3.7 µm Pycnidia: not observed Spot tests: K- or K+ yellow (weak reaction) Secondary metabolites: atranorin and zeorin. Habitat and ecology: on bark of Rhus integrifolia on ridge crest near sea level World distribution: neotropical, north to northern Mexico and southern Florida Sonoran distribution: only collected on Isla Cedros in Baja California.