Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: warty areolate or subareolate, the marginal areoles somewhat lobe-like and crenate surface: bright yellow cortex: 9-13 µm thick, consisting of minute isodiametric cells 2-3 µm in diam., covering an even photobiont layer, densely inspersed with minute yellow crystals of vulpinic acid Apothecia: yellow pruinose, 0.5-1 mm in diam.; margin: distinctly yellow pruinose exciple: 28-50 µm thick laterally, consisting of strongly sclerotized, interwoven hypha, blackish brown, thick, strongly thickened at base, not well delimited from the convex hypothecium and exciple: up to 225 µm thick in the central part asci: clavate, 23-27 x 3-4 µm with uniseriately arranged spores ascospores: brown, 1-septate and constricted in the middle, ellipsoid, 17-22 x 8-10 µm; surface: smooth in young spores surface but developing deep, irregular fissures but without striations resulting in a rimose-areolate appearance and very irregular outline in mature spores Pycnidia: not observed Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P- Secondary metabolites: thallus with vulpinic acid. Substrate and ecology: on trunks and wood of conifers (Abies, Larix and Picea) in old mountain forests World distribution: Europe and North America Sonoran distribution: Arizona and California. Notes: Cyphelium lucidum is characterized by its golden yellow thallus with small crenulate lobes at the edge, its yellow-pruinose apothecia, and its coarsely ornamented spores.