Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: crustose, continuous to rimose to nearly granulose, 0.2-1.0 mm thick; prothallus: absent surface: whitish gray to greenish to yellowish white, dull or weakly glossy Apothecia: sessile to sometimes semi-immersed, slightly to strongly constricted at base, 0.2-0.4 mm in diam. disc: black, plane, convex to weakly convex, nitid, epruinose margin: distinct, thin, persistent or becoming excluded exciple: bluish to greenish black, without algal cells parathecium: yellowish to reddish brown, without crystals epihymenium: green, blackish green, bluish green, blackish brown (if damaged ?) hymenium: hyaline, 55-85 µm tall, inspersed or not inspersed; paraphyses: simple, rarely anastomosing or branched, not to slightly thickened apically hypothecium: weakly yellowish brown, stretching into the exciple asci: clavate, lecanoral, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, broadly ellipsoid to ovoid, 5-7 x 11-14 µm; wall: thick and smooth, not halonate Pycnidia: not seen Spot tests: K-, KC-, C-, P- Secondary metabolites: 2,7-dichloro-6-O-methylnorlichexanthone, 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid. Substrate and ecology: on bark World and Sonoran distribution: apparently endemic to Arizona in the Sonoran region.