Lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi of the continental US & Canada (Version 24)
Authors: Ted Esslinger
Citation: This version (Version #24, 10 December 2021) of the checklist is being simultaneously published online by North Dakota State University, and in Opuscula Philolichenum 20: 100-394.
Locality: Continental United States of America and Canada
Abstract:

Version 24 of the checklist of lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi occurring in North America north of Mexico is presented. It includes a total of 5,823 total species in 805 genera, with an additional 38 subspecies, 51 varieties, and 3 forms.  The total species number includes 670 lichenicolous fungi (*), 113 saprophytic fungi related to lichens or to lichenicolous fungi (+), and another 96 species of varying and/or uncertain biological status (#).

Discrepancies of taxon numbers between the original list and the list in the Consortium are a result of different taxonomies (some species names are considered synonyms by the taxonomic thesaurus of the Lichen Consortium; some genus names are not accepted by the original Esslinger Checklist).

Please click here to download the Reference List as a PDF.

Notes: The original checklist and its previous versions is available online at this website of North Dakota State University. This version in the Lichen Consortium is based on a file parsed from the online checklist.

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Families: 176
Genera: 825
Species: 5773
Total Taxa (details): 5811

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* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Kocourkova et al. (2012)
[Abrothallus glabratulae Kotte]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Diederich (2003)
[Lichenoconium cladoniae (Ellis & Everh.) Petr. & Syd., Sphaeropsis cladoniae Ellis & Everh.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Suija et al. (2015)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Suija et al. (2015)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Suija et al. (2011)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Lendemer & Knudsen (2008b)
[Phoma lobariae Diederich & Etayo]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Diederich et al. (2018)
[Lecidea parmeliarum f. microsperma (Tul.) Stizenb.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Cole & Hawksworth (2001)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Suija et al. (2015)
[Abrothallus parasiticus (Ach.) Nyl., Abrothallus parmeliarum f. parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Nyl., Abrothallus parmeliarum var. parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Nyl., Abrothallus smithii Tul., Buellia parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Tuck., Buellia smithii (Tul.) Jatta, Buelliella parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Fink, Endocarpon parasiticum Ach., Lecidea parmeliarum Sommerf., Lecidea parmeliarum f. parmeliarum Sommerf., Parmelia saxatilis f. parasitica (Ach.) Bosch]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens)
[Abrothallus parmeliarum var. peyritschii Stein]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Diederich (2003)
[Abrothallus parmeliarum f. prodiens Harm., Buellia prodiens (Harm.) H. Olivier, Lecidea prodiens Harm.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Spribille et al. (2010)
[Leciographa suecica Kirschst.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Diederich (2003)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), significant change since the previous checklist version ; possible synonym of A. caerulescens (Spribille et al 2018), source: Cole & Hawksworth (2001)
[Buellia lepidophila var. usneae (Rabenh.) H. Olivier, Buellia usneae (Rabenh.) Jatta, Buelliella usneae (Rabenh.) Fink]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Cole & Hawksworth (2001)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens)
source: Spribille et al. (2009)
source: Spribille et al. (2009)
source: Nash et al. (1998)
significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Spribille et al. (2020)
[Gyalecta geoica f. trivialis Tuck.]
[Acanthothecis intertexta (Müll. Arg.) Staiger & Kalb, Graphina intertexta (Müll. Arg.) R.C. Harris, Graphis intertexta Müll.Arg., Phaeographis aurantiaca Müll.Arg.]
source: Staiger (2002)
source: Lendemer & Harris (2014a)
source: Muscavitch & Lendemer (2016)
source: Staiger & Kalb (1999)
[Acanthothecis abaphoides (Nyl.) Staiger & Kalb, Graphina abaphoides (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Graphis leucopepla Tuck.]
source: Tripp et al. (2010)
source: Lendemer & Harris (2014a)
[Graphina subvirginalis (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Graphis mosquitensis Tuck.]
source: Tripp et al. (2010)
source: Lendemer & Harris (2014a)
[Graphina peplophora M. Wirth & Hale]
source: Tripp et al. (2010)
[Graphis poitaeoides Nyl.]
source: Tripp et al. (2010)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Kocourková & Hawksworth (2008)
source: Knudsen (2007a)
significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Knudsen & Kocourková 2020d, Knudsen et al. (2021d)
[Acarospora cinereoalba Fink ex H. Magn., Acarospora superfusca H. Magn.]
source: Knudsen et al. (2011b)
significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Knudsen et al. (2021d)
[Polysporina arenacea (H. Magn.) K. Knudsen & Kocourk.]
significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Knudsen & Kocourková 2008a, (2020b)
[Acarospora californica Zahlbr., Lecanora badiofusca Nyl., Sarcogyne athroocarpa H. Magn.]
source: Knudsen & Kocourková (2013)
[Biatorella bolleana (H. Magn.) Zahlbr., Sarcogyne bolleana H. Magn.]
significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Knudsen et al. (2020)
[Acarospora asperata H. Magn.]
source: Knudsen et al. (2014b), McCune et al. (2014b)
source: Knudsen (2007a)
source: Knudsen 2007a, Knudsen et al. (2008a)
source: Knudsen & Kocourková (2018b)
previous reports for North America were in error (Knudsen et al. 2010), source: Brinker & Knudsen (2019)
source: Knudsen (2007a)
[Acarospora instrata H. Magn., Acarospora tucsonensis H. Magn.]
significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Knudsen et al. (2021d)
[Lecanora chrysops Tuck.]
source: Knudsen et al. (2008a)
[Biatorella clauzadeana Llimona & Vězda]
source: Brodo et al. 2001, Knudsen (2007a)
[Acarospora albomarginata (Herre) Salisb., Acarospora washingtonensis H. Magn.]
[Acarospora albida H. Magn.]
source: Knudsen (2005a)
source: Knudsen & Kocourková (2018b)
source: Knudsen (2007a)
[Acarospora cartilaginea H. Magn., Acarospora squamulosa f. albomarginata (Cromb.) A.L. Sm., Acarospora squamulosa f. marginata Cromb., Acarospora squamulosa f. squamulosa (Ach.) Trevis., Acarospora squamulosa var. squamulosa (Ach.) Trevis., Acarospora veronensis var. fuscata (Nyl.) Arnold, Lecanora badia var. fuscata Ach., Lecanora fuscata Röhl., Lecanora fuscata var. fuscata Nyl., Lecanora fuscata var. pelioscyphoides Nyl., Lecanora fuscata var. peliscyphoides Nyl., Lichen fuscatus Schrad. nom. cons.]
[Acarospora cervina f. conspersa (Th. Fr.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Acarospora cervina f. depauperata Körb., Acarospora cervina var. glaucocarpa (Ach.) Körb., Acarospora glaucocarpa f. conspersa Th. Fr., Acarospora glaucocarpa f. glaucocarpa (Ach.) Körb., Acarospora glaucocarpa f. ostreata Anzi, Acarospora glaucocarpa var. conspersa Th. Fr., Acarospora glaucocarpa var. depauperata (Körb.) A.L. Sm., Acarospora glaucocarpa var. glaucocarpa (Ach.) Körb., Acarospora percaenoides (Nyl.) Flagey, Lecanora castanea f. percaenoides Nyl., Lecanora glaucocarpa (Ach.) Ach., Lecanora glaucocarpa f. conspersa (Th. Fr.) Cromb., Lecanora glaucocarpa f. glaucocarpa (Ach.) Ach., Lecanora glaucocarpa f. verrucosa Tuck., Lecanora glaucocarpa var. endocarpoides Vain., Lecanora glaucocarpa var. glaucocarpa (Ach.) Ach., Lecanora percaenoides Nyl., Lichen glaucocarpus (Ach.) Wahlenb., Myriospora glaucocarpa (Ach.) Hepp, Parmelia glaucocarpa Ach., Placodium glaucocarpum (Ach.) Müll.Arg.]
[Polysporina gyrocarpa (H. Magn.) N.S. Golubk., Sarcogyne gyrocarpa H. Magn.]
significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Knudsen et al. (2017)
[Acarospora rubicunda H. Magn.]
[Lecanora hilaris Dufour]
[Acarospora atrata Hue, Acarospora opaca H. Magn., Acarospora opaca f. opaca H. Magn., Lecanora impressula (Th. Fr.) Nyl.]
# = various fungi of uncertain status: e.g.: those which are questionably or weakly lichen-forming; or algicolous/saprophytic; or parasitic when young but saprophytic or lichen-forming when mature; or lichenicolous lichens
source: Lumbsch et al. (2011)
[Biatorella sphaerospora (J. Steiner) Zahlbr., Sarcogyne sphaerospora J. Steiner]
significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Knudsen & Kocourková (2020c)
source: Knudsen & Kocourková (2015)
[Acarospora castanea f. incusa Körb., Acarospora incusa (Körb.) M. Choisy & Werner, Acarospora macrospora subsp. murorum (A. Massal.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Acarospora macrospora var. incusa (Körb.) H. Magn., Acarospora murorum A. Massal., Acarospora murorum f. murorum A. Massal., Acarospora squamulosa var. incusa (Körb.) Zahlbr.]
[Aspicilia excavata G. Thor & Timdal, Aspicilia moenium (Vain.) Thor & Timdal, Endocarpon moenium Vain.]
source: Nordin et al. (2009)
[Acarospora molybdina f. molybdina (Wahlenb.) Trevis., Acarospora molybdina var. molybdina (Wahlenb.) Trevis.]
# = various fungi of uncertain status: e.g.: those which are questionably or weakly lichen-forming; or algicolous/saprophytic; or parasitic when young but saprophytic or lichen-forming when mature; or lichenicolous lichens, source: Knudsen (2011a)
[Acarospora caesiofusca (Mull. Arg.) H. Magn.]
source: Knudsen & Morse (2009)
[Acarospora geogena H. Magn., Acarospora geophila H. Magn., Acarospora reagens Zahlbr.]
[Acarospora ferdinandii (Müll.Arg.) Hue, Parmelia nodulosa Dufour, Placodium ferdinandii Müll.Arg., Placodium nodulosum (Dufour) Müll. Arg., Urceolaria nodulosa (Dufour) Schaer.]
[Acarospora incertula H. Magn.]
source: Knudsen (2007a)
[Lecanora obpallens Nyl. ex Hasse]
[Acarospora glebosa Almq.]
source: Knudsen [2010 (2011)]
significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Knudsen et al. (2021d)
source: Knudsen et al. (2011b)
[Acarospora cervina var. privigna (Ach.) Mudd, Acarospora cervina var. simplex (Taylor) Mudd, Acarospora simplex (Taylor) Jatta nom. illegit., Acarospora simplex var. decipiens (A. Massal.) Jatta, Biatora privigna (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Biatorella privigna (Ach.) Sandst., Biatorella privigna f. privigna (Ach.) Sandst., Biatorella privigna var. privigna (Ach.) Sandst., Biatorella pruinosa var. decipiens Th. Fr. nom. illegit., Biatorella revertens (Tuck.) Herre, Biatorella simplex (Davies) Branth & Rostr., Biatorella simplex f. complicata (Cromb.) Sandst., Biatorella simplex f. goniophila (Flörke) Zahlbr., Biatorella simplex f. incrassata (Arnold) Zahlbr., Biatorella simplex f. simplex (Davies) Branth & Rostr., Biatorella simplex var. angusta (H. Magn.) Zahlbr., Biatorella simplex var. calcifraga (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Biatorella simplex var. chlorocinella (Wedd.) H. Olivier, Biatorella simplex var. crustosa (H. Magn.) Zahlbr., Biatorella simplex var. herpes Norman, Biatorella simplex var. hymenogonia (Zahlbr.) Zahlbr., Biatorella simplex var. incrassata (Arnold) Zahlbr., Biatorella simplex var. major (H. Magn.) Zahlbr., Biatorella simplex var. simplex (Davies) Branth & Rostr., Biatorella simplex var. strepsodina (Ach.) H. Olivier, Lecanora privigna (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora privigna var. privigna (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora privigna var. revertens Tuck. [synonymy unresolved], Lecanora simplex (Taylor) Nyl., Lecanora simplex f. complicata Cromb., Lecanora simplex f. simplex (Davies) Nyl., Lecidea privigna Ach., Lecidea simplex Taylor, Lecidea simplex var. calcifraga Müll.Arg., Lecidea simplex var. chlorocinella Wedd., Lecidea simplex var. simplex (Davies) Taylor, Polysporina simplex (Taylor) Vězda, Polysporina simplex f. simplex (Davies) Vezda, Polysporina simplex var. crustosa (H. Magn.) N.S. Golubk., Polysporina simplex var. simplex (Davies) Vezda, Psora privigna (Ach.) Flot., Rinodina privigna (Ach.) Gray, Sarcogyne privigna (Ach.) A. Massal., Sarcogyne simplex (Davies) Nyl., Sarcogyne simplex f. complicata (Cromb.) H. Magn., Sarcogyne simplex f. goniophila Flörke, Sarcogyne simplex f. incrassata Arnold, Sarcogyne simplex f. lignicola B. de Lesd. ex Meyl., Sarcogyne simplex f. simplex (Davies) Nyl., Sarcogyne simplex subsp. incrassata (Arnold) H. Magn., Sarcogyne simplex subsp. simplex (Davies) Nyl., Sarcogyne simplex var. angusta H. Magn., Sarcogyne simplex var. crustosa H. Magn., Sarcogyne simplex var. hymenogonia (Zahlbr.) H. Magn., Sarcogyne simplex var. major H. Magn., Sarcogyne simplex var. simplex (Davies) Nyl.]
significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Knudsen et al. (2021b)
significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Knudsen & Kocourková (2020d)
source: Knudsen (2007a)
source: Knudsen et al. (2010)
source: Knudsen 2007a, Knudsen et al. (2008a)
[Acarospora montana H. Magn.]
[Acarospora ocellata H. Magn., Acarospora subcontigua H. Magn., Aspicilia schleicheri (Ach.) Pit. & Harm., Lecanora schleicheri (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora schleicheri f. radicans Nyl., Lecanora schleicheri f. schleicheri (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora schleicheri var. schleicheri (Ach.) Nyl., Parmelia schleicheri (Ach.) Fr., Placodium schleicheri (Ach.) Boistel, Urceolaria schleicheri Ach.]
# = various fungi of uncertain status: e.g.: those which are questionably or weakly lichen-forming; or algicolous/saprophytic; or parasitic when young but saprophytic or lichen-forming when mature; or lichenicolous lichens, significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Knudsen & Kocourková (2020b)
[Acarospora smaragdula var. sinopica (Wahlenb.) A. Massal., Endocarpon sinopicum Wahlenb., Lecanora fuscata var. sinopica (Wahlenb.) Linds., Lecanora sinopica (Wahlenb.) Sommerf., Lichen sinopicus (Wahlenb.) Sm., Myriospora sinopica (Wahlenb.) Hepp, Zeora sinopica (Wahlenb.) Flot.]
[Acarospora evoluta H. Magn., Acarospora intercedens H. Magn., Acarospora subalbida H. Magn.]
[Acarospora peliocypha (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr., Lichen squamulosus Schrad., Parmelia peliocypha Wahlenb., Parmelia squamulosa Ach.]
source: Knudsen et al. (2019)
# = various fungi of uncertain status: e.g.: those which are questionably or weakly lichen-forming; or algicolous/saprophytic; or parasitic when young but saprophytic or lichen-forming when mature; or lichenicolous lichens
[Acarospora nigromarginata B. de Lesd., Acarospora peltastica Zahlbr., Acarospora peltata Hasse, Acarospora strigata f. longispora H. Magn.]
[Biatorella subfuscescens (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Lecanora subfuscescens Nyl., Polysporina subfuscescens (Nyl.) K. Knudsen & Kocourk., Sarcogyne subfuscescens (Nyl.) Boistel]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Knudsen et al. (2021b)
[Acarospora interspersa H. Magn.]
source: Lendemer & Knudsen (2011)
significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Knudsen et al. (2021d)
[Acarospora interposita H. Magn., Acarospora interposita var. nitidella H. Magn., Acarospora nitidella (H. Magn.) K. Knudsen ined., Acarospora thermophila Herre, Lecanora cervina var. thamnina Tuck.]
[Acarospora pleiospora (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Acarospora pleistospora (Nyl.) Hasse, Lecanora pleiospora J. Steiner, Lecanora pleiospora var. pleiospora J. Steiner, Lecanora pleiospora var. zimmermannii Servít, Lecanora pleistospora J. Steiner, Lecanora thelococcoides Nyl.]
source: Knudsen & Kocourková (2017)
source: Knudsen (2007a)
[Acarospora magnussonii Samp., Acarospora obscura H. Magn.]
[Cyphelium chloroconium (Tuck.) Zahlbr.]
[Acolium tympanellum (Ach.) Gray, Calicium inquinans (Sm.) Schaer., Calicium tympanellum Ach., Cyphelium inquinans (Sm.) Trevisan, Cyphelium inquinans f. inquinans (Sm.) Trevis., Cyphelium tympanellum (Ach.) Ach., Lecidea tympanella (Ach.) Link, Lichen inquinans Sm., Trachylia inquinans (Sm.) Rabenh., Trachylia tympanella (Ach.) Fr.]
[Cyphelium lucidum var. karelicum Vain.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Spribille et al. (2010)
[Dendrodochium subeffusum Ellis & Everh.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens)
[Arthopyrenia cavata (Ach.) R.C. Harris, Verrucaria cavata Ach.]
[Acrocordia conoidea f. carnea Arnold, Acrocordia epipolaea (Borrer) A.L. Sm., Arthopyrenia conoidea (Fr.) Zahlbr., Arthopyrenia conoidea var. conoidea (Fr.) Zahlbr., Arthopyrenia conoidea var. suzae Vězda, Arthopyrenia conoidea var. triseptata (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Arthopyrenia epipolaea (Borrer) A. Massal., Leiophloea conoidea (Fr.) Trevis., Sagedia conoidea (Fr.) Hepp, Thelidium conoideum (Fr.) Kremp., Verrucaria conoidea Fr., Verrucaria conoidea var. conoidea Fr., Verrucaria conoidea var. triseptata Nyl., Verrucaria epipolaea Borrer, Verrucaria epipolaea var. epipolaea Ach., Verrucaria epipolaea var. orbicularis Garov., Verrucaria epipolaea var. rugulosa Schaer.]
[Acrocordia alba (Schrad.) B. de Lesd., Arthopyrenia alba (Schrad.) Zahlbr., Arthopyrenia alba var. alba (Schrad.) Zahlbr., Arthopyrenia alba var. subdissoluta Erichsen, Arthopyrenia gemmata (Ach.) A. Massal., Arthopyrenia sphaeroides (Wallr.) Zahlbr., Arthopyrenia sphaeroides var. glauca (Körb.) Erichsen, Arthopyrenia sphaeroides var. sphaeroides (Wallr.) Zahlbr., Leiophloea alba (Schrad.) Riedl, Leiophloea gemmata (Ach.) Gray, Lichen gemmatus Ach., Pyrenula gemmata (Ach.) Nägeli, Pyrenula gemmata var. gemmata (Ach.) Nägeli, Pyrenula gemmata var. tersa (Körb.) J.J. Kickx, Sagedia gemmata (Ach.) Stizenb., Segestrella gemmata (Ach.) Branth & Rostr., Thelidium gemmatum (Ach.) Kremp., Verrucaria alba Schrad., Verrucaria gemmata (Ach.) Ach.]
source: Lendemer & Harris (2014b)
[Arthopyrenia finkii Zahlbr., Arthopyrenia macrospora Fink, Pyrenula megalospora Fink]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens)
[Biatora pilati Hepp, Lecidea lyngeana Zahlbr., Lecidea pilati (Hepp) Körb., Lecidea subauriculata Lynge (non B. de Lesd.) nom. illegit.]
source: Hertel (2004)
[Amphoroblastia allobata (Stizenb.) Servít, Polyblastia allobata (Stizenb.) Zschacke, Verrucaria allobata Stizenb.]
source: Fryday (2001)
[Amphoroblastia gelatinosa (Ach.) Servít, Amphoroblastia nigrata (Nyl.) Servít, Chromatochlamys gelatinosa (Ach.) Trevis., Endocarpon gelatinosum (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Polyblastia gelatinosa (Ach.) Th. Fr., Polyblastia nigrata (Nyl.) Lönnr., Pyrenula gelatinosa (Ach.) Schaer., Sphaeromphale nigrata (Nyl.) Mudd, Verrucaria gelatinosa Ach., Verrucaria nigrata Nyl.]
source: Sérusiaux et al. (1999)
[Phaeophyscia opuntiella (Buschardt & Poelt) Hafellner, Physcia opuntiella Buschardt & Poelt]
source: Lendemer (2004c)
[Acarospora fuscata f. tristicula (Nyl.) H. Magn., Acrocordia tristicula (Nyl.) A. Massal., Polyblastia tristicula (Nyl.) Arnold, Sporodictyon tristiculum (Nyl.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Verrucaria tristicula Nyl.]
[Agyrium rufum var. pallens Fr., Agyrium rufum var. rufum (Pers.) Fr., Biatora grumosa (Leight.) Walt. Watson, Lecidea grumosa Leight., Stictis rufa Pers., Xylographa parallela f. pallescens Fr.]
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates
[Cetraria aurescens Tuck., Nephromopsis aurescens (Tuck.) Divakar, A. Crespo & Lumbsch, Tuckermannopsis aurescens (Tuck.) Hale, Tuckermanopsis aurescens (Tuck.) Hale]
source: Thell et al. (1995)
[Cetraria pallidula Tuck. ex Riddle, Tuckermannopsis pallidula (Tuck. ex Riddle) Hale, Tuckermanopsis pallidula (Tuck. ex Riddle) Hale]
source: Thell et al. (1995)
[Cetraria sphaerosporella (Müll. Arg.) McCune, Nephromopsis sphaerosporella (Müll. Arg.) Divakar, A. Crespo & Lumbsch, Parmelia sphaerosporella Müll.Arg.]
source: Brodo & Lendemer (2015)
[Alectoria osteina Nyl., Cornicularia lata Taylor]
[Alectoria ochroleuca f. citrina Räsänen, Alectoria ochroleuca f. tenuior Cromb., Alectoria ochroleuca var. citrina (Räsänen) D. Hawksw., Alectoria ochroleuca var. rigida (Fr.) Th. Fr., Bryopogon ochroleucus (Hoffm.) Link, Bryopogon ochroleucus f. intricatus Gyeln., Bryopogon ochroleucus f. japonicus Gyeln., Bryopogon ochroleucus f. ochroleucus (Hoffm.) Link, Bryopogon ochroleucus var. ochroleucus (Hoffm.) Link, Bryopogon ochroleucus var. rigidus (Fr.) Hazsl., Bryopogon ochroleucus var. tenuior (Cromb.) Gyeln., Bryopogon ochroleucus var. tenulor (Cromb.) Gyeln., Cornicularia ochroleuca (Hoffm.) DC., Cornicularia ochroleuca var. ochroleuca (Hoffm.) DC., Cornicularia ochroleuca var. rigida (Fr.) Schaer., Evernia ochroleuca (Hoffm.) Fr., Evernia ochroleuca var. ochroleuca (Hoffm.) Fr., Evernia ochroleuca var. rigida Fr., Parmelia ochroleuca f. ochroleuca (Hoffm.) Ach., Parmelia ochroleuca var. ochroleuca (Hoffm.) Ach., Usnea ochroleuca Hoffm.]
[Alectoria luteola Mont., Alectoria stigmata Bystrek, Alectoria subsarmentosa Stirt.]
[Alectoria cincinnata (Fr.) Lynge, Alectoria cincinnata f. vexillifera (Nyl.) Savicz, Alectoria cincinnata var. vexillifera (Nyl.) Räsänen, Alectoria ochroleuca subsp. vexillifera Nyl., Alectoria ochroleuca var. cincinnata (Fr.) Nyl., Alectoria sarmentosa f. vexillifera (Nyl.) H. Magn., Alectoria sarmentosa subsp. vexillifera (Nyl.) D. Hawksw., Alectoria sarmentosa var. cincinnata (Fr.) Nyl., Bryopogon cincinnatus (Fr.) Gyeln., Bryopogon cincinnatus f. adventivus Gyeln., Bryopogon cincinnatus f. cincinnatus (Fr.) Gyeln., Bryopogon vexilliferus (Nyl.) Gyeln., Evernia ochroleuca var. cincinnata Fr.]
source: McMullin et al. (2016)
[Hypogymnia almquistii (Vain.) Rass., Parmelia almquistii Vain., Parmelia almquistii f. almquistii Vain., Parmelia almquistii f. opaca Lynge]
[Brodoa atrofusca (Schaer.) Goward, Hypogymnia alpicola (Th. Fr.) Hav., Hypogymnia alpicola f. alpicola (Th. Fr.) Hav., Hypogymnia alpicola f. nitida (Vain.) Rass., Hypogymnia alpicola f. opaca (Vain.) Rass., Hypogymnia atrofusca (Schaer.) Räsänen, Hypogymnia atrofusca f. atrofusca (Schaer.) Räsänen, Hypogymnia atrofusca f. nitida (Vain.) Räsänen, Hypogymnia atrofusca f. opaca (Vain.) Räsänen, Hypogymnia intestiniformis var. atrofusca (Schaer.) Poelt, Imbricaria alpicola (Th. Fr.) Arnold, Parmelia alpicola Th. Fr., Parmelia alpicola f. alpicola Th. Fr., Parmelia alpicola f. aperta Å.E. Dahl, Lynge & Schol., Parmelia alpicola f. luxurians Frey, Parmelia alpicola f. nitida Vain., Parmelia alpicola f. opaca Vain., Parmelia atrofusca (Schaer.) Cromb., Parmelia atrofusca f. atrofusca (Schaer.) Cromb., Parmelia atrofusca f. luxurians (Frey) Zahlbr., Parmelia atrofusca f. nitida (Vain.) Zahlbr., Parmelia atrofusca f. opaca (Vain.) Zahlbr., Parmelia ceratophylla var. atrofusca Schaer., Parmelia encausta var. alpicola (Th. Fr.) Nyl., Parmelia intestiniformis var. atrofusca (Schaer.) Hasselrot]
source: Spribille et al. (2009a)
[Calicium adaequatum Nyl., Calicium adequatum Nyl., Calicium hemisphaericum G.E. Howard, Embolidium adaequatum (Nyl.) Vain.]
[Cetraria madreporiformis (Ach.) Müll. Arg., Dactylina madreporiformis (Ach.) Tuck., Dactylina madreporiformis f. madreporiformis (With.) Tuck., Dufourea madreporiformis Ach., Evernia fertilis Fr., Evernia madreporiformis (Ach.) Fr., Isidium madreporiforme (Ach.) Chevall., Parmelia madreporiformis (Ach.) Spreng., Siphula madreporiformis (Ach.) Duby]
source: Kärnefelt & Thell (1996)
[Evernia stracheyi C. Bab.]
source: Thell et al. (2009)
[Graphina acharii (Fée) Müll. Arg., Graphis acharii Fée, Graphis rigida f. acharii (Fée) Nyl., Graphis rigida var. acharii (Fée) Kremp., Opegrapha acharii (Fée) Mont.]
presence in N.A. uncertain (Tripp et al. 2010), source: Kalb et al. (2018)
[Graphis argentata Lücking & Umaña]
source: Lücking et al. 2011b, Lücking & Kalb (2018)
[Graphis elongata Zenker, Graphis elongata var. elongata Vain.]
source: Seavey et al. 2017, Kalb et al. (2018)
[Graphis longula Kremp., Phaeographis longula (Kremp.) Zahlbr.]
source: Lücking et al. 2011b, Lücking & Kalb (2018)
[Graphis lumbricina Vain.]
source: Lücking & Kalb (2018)
[Graphis pavoniana Fée]
North American reports uncertain (Lendemer 2010b), source: Kalb et al. (2018)
[Graphis pseudocinerea Lücking]
source: Lücking et al. 2011b, Lücking & Kalb (2018)
[Graphis rimulosa (Mont.) Trevisan, Graphis rimulosa var. pulverulenta (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Graphis rimulosa var. rimulosa (Mont.) Trevis., Graphis striatula var. pulverulenta Nyl., Opegrapha rimulosa Mont.]
source: Kalb et al. (2018)
[Graphis sauroidea Leighton]
source: Lücking et al. (2011b)
[Graphis sterlingiana E. Tripp & Lendemer]
source: Lendemer et al. 2013, Lücking & Kalb (2018)
[Graphis striatula (Ach.) Sprengel, Graphis striatula var. sublaevis Nyl., Hysterium striatulum (Ach.) Fr., Opegrapha striatula Ach.]
[Graphis subamylacea Zahlbr.]
source: Lücking & Kalb (2018)
[Graphis subflexibilis Lücking & Chaves]
source: Lücking et al. 2011b, Lücking & Kalb (2018)
[Graphis tamiamiensis Lendemer]
source: Lendemer 2010b, Lücking & Kalb (2018)
[Graphis xanthospora Müll.Arg.]
source: Lücking et al. 2011b, Kalb et al. (2018)
[Opegrapha bicolor R.C. Harris & Lendemer]
source: Ertz & Tehler (2011)
[Opegrapha betulina Pers., Opegrapha betulina var. betulina Pers., Opegrapha betulina var. conferta Erichsen, Opegrapha betulina var. herbarum (Mont.) Redinger, Opegrapha culmigena Lib., Opegrapha herbarum Mont., Opegrapha prosodeoides Vain., Opegrapha turneri Leight.]
significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Spribille et al. (2020)
[Opegrapha leightonii Cromb., Opegrapha mougeotii A. Massal.]
source: Frisch et al. (2014)
[Opegrapha ochrocheila Nyl.]
source: Ertz & Tehler (2011)
[Alyxoria diaphora (Ach.) Gray, Alyxoria notha (Ach.) Gray, Graphis notha (Ach.) Trevis., Graphis varia (Pers.) Branth & Rostr., Lichen nothus Ach., Lichen signatus Ach., Opegrapha chlorina Pers., Opegrapha diaphora (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha diaphora f. diaphora (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha diaphora f. herbicola Nyl., Opegrapha diaphora f. signata (Ach.) J. Nowak, Opegrapha diaphora f. tigrina (Ach.) J. Nowak, Opegrapha diaphora var. chlorina (Pers.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha diaphora var. diaphora (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha diaphora var. mexicana B. de Lesd. ex Ruiz{?}, Opegrapha diaphora var. signata (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha diaphora var. stellata Sántha, Opegrapha diaphora var. tigrina (Ach.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha diaphora var. tridens (Ach.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha lichenoides Pers., Opegrapha lichenoides f. cerebrina (Erichsen) J. Nowak, Opegrapha lichenoides f. chlorina (Pers.) Erichsen, Opegrapha lichenoides f. lichenoides Pers., Opegrapha lichenoides f. octomera Redinger, Opegrapha lichenoides f. populina (Moug.) Zahlbr., Opegrapha lichenoides var. cerebrina Erichsen, Opegrapha lichenoides var. chlorina (Pers.) Redinger, Opegrapha lichenoides var. lichenoides Pers., Opegrapha lichenoides var. populina (Moug.) Erichsen, Opegrapha lichenoides var. subchondrina Redinger, Opegrapha notha (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha notha var. notha (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha notha var. populina Moug., Opegrapha notha var. spaniota Ach., Opegrapha pulicaris (Hoffm.) Schrader, Opegrapha pulicaris f. lutescens (Ach.) Nyl., Opegrapha pulicaris f. minuta (Chevall.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha pulicaris f. phaea (Ach.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha pulicaris f. pollinii (A. Massal.) Redinger, Opegrapha pulicaris f. pulicaris (Hoffm.) Schrad., Opegrapha rimalis Pers. ex Ach., Opegrapha rimalis var. betulina H. Olivier, Opegrapha rimalis var. rimalis Ach., Opegrapha signata (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha signata var. beta Ach., Opegrapha signata var. signata (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha signata var. tigrina Ach., Opegrapha tridens Ach., Opegrapha varia Pers., Opegrapha varia f. pulicaris, Opegrapha varia f. varia Pers., Opegrapha varia f. xanthocarpa Zwackh, Opegrapha varia var. chlorina (Pers.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha varia var. diaphora (Ach.) Fr., Opegrapha varia var. glomerulans Müll.Arg., Opegrapha varia var. heterocarpa Müll.Arg., Opegrapha varia var. lichenoides (Pers.) Hepp, Opegrapha varia var. notha (Ach.) Fr., Opegrapha varia var. phaea (Ach.) Rabenh., Opegrapha varia var. pulicaris (Hoffm.) Fr., Opegrapha varia var. rimalis (Ach.) Fr., Opegrapha varia var. varia, Scaphis notha (Ach.) Eschw.]
source: Ertz & Tehler (2011)
[Buellia adjuncta Th. Fr., Karschia adjuncta (Th. Fr.) Arnold]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Hafellner (2004b)
[Rinodina cacuminum (Th. Fr.) Malme]
source: Mayrhofer & Sheard (2002)
[Buellia coniops (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr., Buellia coniops f. cervinogranulata I.M. Lamb, Buellia coniops f. coniops (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr., Buellia coniops f. incrassata I.M. Lamb, Buellia coniops f. verrucosa I.M. Lamb, Buellia coniops var. cervinogranulata I.M. Lamb, Buellia coniops var. coniops (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr., Lecidea coniops Wahlenb., Lecidea coniops var. aequata Ach., Lecidea coniops var. coniops Wahlenb.]
[Rinodina dakotensis H. Magn., Rinodina finkii H. Magn., Rinodina inaequalis H. Magn., Rinodina pennsylvanica H. Magn., Rinodina pyriniformis H. Magn., Rinodina subplumbea H. Magn.]
source: Sheard & May (1997)
[Buellia efflorescens Müll.Arg., Buellia efflorescens var. diminutiva (Vain.) Imshaug, Buellia efflorescens var. efflorescens Müll.Arg.]
source: Marbach (2000)
[Buellia langloisii Imshaug]
source: Marbach (2000)
[Lecidea prospersa Nyl., Rinodina lecideina H. Mayrhofer & Poelt, Rinodina prospersa (Nyl.) Zahlbr.]
source: McCune (2017)
source: Tønsberg et al. (2012)
[Rinodina milliaria Tuck., Rinodina milliaria f. incrassata H. Magn., Rinodina milliaria f. milliaria Tuck., Rinodina milliaria f. obscura H. Magn., Rinodina milliaria f. tenuis H. Magn.]
source: Sheard & May (1997)
[Buellia myriocarpa var. polyspora Willey, Buellia polyspora (Will.) Vain., Buellia punctata var. polyspora (Willey) Fink]
source: Sheard & May (1997)
[Buellia myriocarpa (DC.) Mudd, Buellia myriocarpa f. crassior Erichsen, Buellia myriocarpa f. demissaeformis Malme, Buellia myriocarpa f. depauperata (Anzi) Walt. Watson, Buellia myriocarpa f. litoralis Erichsen, Buellia myriocarpa f. myriocarpa (DC.) De Not., Buellia myriocarpa f. rorigera Th. Fr., Buellia myriocarpa f. stigmatea (Schaer.) Stein, Buellia myriocarpa var. chloropolia (Fr.) Th. Fr., Buellia myriocarpa var. myriocarpa (DC.) De Not., Buellia myriocarpa var. pallescens Th. Fr., Buellia myriocarpa var. punctiformis (Hoffm.) Mudd, Buellia myriocarpa var. stigmatea (Körb.) H. Olivier, Buellia parasema var. stigmatea (Schaer.) Flagey, Buellia praecavenda (Nyl. ex Cromb.) Arnold, Buellia punctata (Hoffm.) Mass., Buellia punctata f. crassior (Erichsen) Zahlbr., Buellia punctata f. globosa Erichsen, Buellia punctata f. litoralis (Erichsen) Zahlbr., Buellia punctata f. marcidula Zahlbr., Buellia punctata f. micula Erichsen, Buellia punctata f. perminuta (Arnold) Zahlbr., Buellia punctata f. punctata (Hoffm.) A. Massal., Buellia punctata f. punctiformis (Hoffm.) Hazsl., Buellia punctata f. rorigera (Th. Fr.) Zahlbr., Buellia punctata var. aequata (Ach.) Zahlbr., Buellia punctata var. excelsa (Leight.) Sheard, Buellia punctata var. litoralis (Erichsen) Erichsen, Buellia punctata var. punctata (Hoffm.) A. Massal., Buellia punctata var. punctiformis (Hoffm.) Oxner, Buellia punctata var. saprophila (Ach.) Anzi, Buellia punctata var. stigmatea (Schaer.) Servít & Nádv., Buellia punctata var. virens J. Steiner, Buellia stigmatea f. depauperata Anzi, Karschia myriocarpa (DC.) Sacc. & Traverso, Karschia myriocarpa var. myriocarpa (DC.) Sacc. & Traverso, Karschia myriocarpa var. punctiformis (Hoffm.) Sacc. & Traverso, Karschia thalloides, Karschia thallophila (Ohlert) Rehm, Lecidea myriocarpa (DC.) Röhl., Lecidea myriocarpa f. areolata Leight., Lecidea myriocarpa f. ecrustacea Leight., Lecidea myriocarpa f. leprosa Leight., Lecidea myriocarpa f. myriocarpa (DC.) Röhl., Lecidea myriocarpa f. opegraphina Leight., Lecidea myriocarpa f. punctiformis Hoffm., Lecidea praecavenda Nyl. ex Cromb., Lecidea punctata var. stigmatea Schaer., Lecidella thallophila Ohlert, Lichen myriocarpus (DC.) Lam., Patellaria myriocarpa DC., Verrucaria punctata Hoffm., Verrucaria punctata var. atrosanguinea Hoffm., Verrucaria punctata var. punctata Hoffm.]
[Buellia disciformis var. subduplicata Vain., Buellia subduplicata (Vain.) Kalb]
source: Marbach (2000)
source: Marbach (2000)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Zhurbenko & Braun (2013)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Diederich et al. (2019)
[Sphaeria bufonia Berk. & Broome]
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates, source: Perlmutter et al. (2017)
source: Seavey et al. (2014)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Diederich et al. (2019)
[Caloplaca approximata (Lynge) H. Magn., Caloplaca vitellinula f. approximata Lynge]
[Huilia consentiens (Nyl.) Hertel, Lecidea consentiens Nyl., Lecidea scutulata Stirt.]
[Huilia elegantior (H. Magn.) Hertel, Lecidea elegantior H. Magn.]
[Biatora panaeola (Ach.) Fr., Huilia panaeola (Ach.) Hertel, Lecidea panaeola Ach., Lecidea panaeola f. elegans Th. Fr., Lecidea panaeola f. obliterata Leight., Lecidea panaeola f. panaeola Ach., Lecidea panaeola f. subconsentiens Leight., Lecidea panaeola f. vulgaris Th. Fr., Lecidea panaeola var. panaeola Ach.]
[Aspicilia athroocarpa (Sm. & Sowerby) Mudd, Aspicilia pelobotrya Wahlenb., Aspicilia pelobotrya var. gyrocarpa Savicz, Aspicilia pelobotrya var. pelobotrya (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr., Lecanora pelobotrya (Wahlenb.) Sommerf., Lecidea pelobotrya (Wahlenb.) Leight., Lecidea pelobotrya f. obliterata (Leight.) I.M. Lamb, Lecidea pelobotrya f. pelobotrya (Wahlenb.) Leight., Lecidea pelobotrya f. subconsentiens (Leight.) I.M. Lamb, Lichen pelobotryus Wahlenb., Parmelia pelobotrya (Wahlenb.) Hepp, Urceolaria pelobotryon Wahlenb.]
[Lecidea pulcherrima Vain., Psora pulcherrima (Vain.) Elenkin, Psora pulcherrima var. elegantula Elenkin, Psora pulcherrima var. pulcherrima (Vain.) Elenkin]
[Anaptychia stippaea (Ach.) Nádv.]
[Borrera crinalis Schleich. ex Schaer., Physcia ciliaris var. crinalis (Torss.) Schaer.]
source: Esslinger (2007)
[Physconia thomsonii Essl.]
source: Esslinger (2002a)
[Anaptychia aquila auct. N.Americ. non (Ach.) A. Massal., Physcia detonsa (Fr.) Nyl., Psoroma palmulata Michx.]
source: Schultz (2002a)
[Ditremis albiseda (Nyl.) R.C. Harris, Verrucaria viridiseda f. albiseda Nyl.]
[Arthopyrenia ambigua Zahlbr., Ditremis ambigua (Zahlbr.) R.C. Harris]
[Anisomeridium feeanum (Müll. Arg.) R.C. Harris, Arthopyrenia anisoloba Müll.Arg., Ditremis anisoloba (Müll. Arg.) R.C. Harris]
[Ditremis macrospora R. C. Harris non Makhija & Patwardhan]
source: Harris (1995a)
[Acrocordia biformis (Borrer) Arnold, Acrocordia conformis (Nyl.) Hellb., Amphisphaeria biformis (Borrer) Rehm, Arthopyrenia biformis (Borrer) Müll. Arg., Arthopyrenia biformis f. biformis (Borrer) A. Massal., Arthopyrenia biformis f. microcarpa Erichsen, Arthopyrenia biformis var. biformis (Borrer) A. Massal., Arthopyrenia biformis var. macrocarpa (Körb.) Keissl., Arthopyrenia byssacea (Taylor) A.L. Sm., Arthopyrenia conformis (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Arthopyrenia conformis f. conformis (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Arthopyrenia conformis f. rhypontoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Arthopyrenia parvula Zahlbr., Ditremis biformis (Borrer) R.C. Harris, Leiophloea biformis (Borrer) Trevis., Pharcidia thallophila (Cooke) Vouaux, Sagedia biformis (Borrer) Müll. Arg., Segestrella biformis (Borrer) Branth & Rostr., Sphaerella thallophila (Cooke) Cooke, Sphaeria thallophila Cooke, Thelidium biformis (Borrer) Mudd, Trimmatothele umbellulariae Herre, Verrucaria biformis Borrer, Verrucaria byssacea Taylor, Verrucaria conformis Nyl., Verrucaria conformis f. conformis Nyl., Verrucaria conformis f. rhypontoides Nyl.]
[Arthopyrenia carinthiaca J. Steiner, Arthopyrenia dimidiata Fink, Ditremis carinthiaca (J. Steiner) R.C. Harris, Paraphysothele carinthiaca (J. Steiner) Keissl.]
[Arthopyrenia distans (Willey) Zahlbr., Ditremis distans (Willey) R.C. Harris]
[Anisomeridium sanfordense (Zahlbr.) R.C. Harris, Arthopyrenia sanfordensis Zahlbr., Ditremis sanfordensis (Zahlbr.) R.C. Harris]
source: Harris (1995a)
[Ditremis finkii R.C. Harris]
source: Harris (1995a)
[Arthopyrenia leucochlora Müll.Arg., Ditremis leucochlora (Müll. Arg.) R.C. Harris]
[Anisomeridium juistense (Erichsen) R.C. Harris, Anisomeridium nyssigenum (Ellis & Everh.) R.C. Harris, Apiospora polypori Ellis & Everh., Arthopyrenia willeyana R.C. Harris, Ditremis nyssogena [as 'nyssaegena'] (Ellis & Everh.) R.C. Harris 1990, Paraphysothele juistensis (Erichsen) Servít, Thelidium juistense Erichsen, Zignoëlla nyssogena Ellis & Everh.]
source: Barr et al. (1996)
source: Harris 1995a, Aptroot (1997)
[Ditremis quaternaria R.C. Harris]
source: Harris (1995a)
[Arthopyrenia subnexa (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Verrucaria subnexa Nyl.]
source: Lücking et al. (2011b)
[Arthopyrenia subprostans (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Ditremis subprostans (Nyl.) R.C. Harris, Leiophloea subprostans (Nyl.) Trevis., Pyrenula subprostans (Nyl.) Tuck., Verrucaria subprostans Nyl.]
[Ditremis tamarindi (Fée) R.C. Harris, Leiophloea tamarindi (Fée) Trevis., Porina tamarindi (Fée) Müll.Arg., Verrucaria tamarindi Fée]
[Arthopyrenia anacardii Vain., Arthopyrenia terminata (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Ditremis terminata (Nyl.) R.C. Harris, Pleurotrema anacardii (Vain.) R.C. Harris, Tomasellia queenslandica Müll.Arg., Verrucaria terminata Nyl.]
source: Harris (1995a)
[Ditremis tuckerae (R.C. Harris) R.C. Harris]
[Digraphis turbulenta (Nyl.) Clem., Graphis turbulenta Nyl.]
source: Staiger (2002)
[Anthracothecium nanum (Zahlbr.) R.C. Harris, Pleurotheliopsis australiensis (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Pleurothelium australiense Müll. Arg.]
source: Aptroot (2012)
[Pyrenula pachycheila Tuck.]
source: Tuckerman (1872)
[Acrorixis prasina (Eschw.) Trevis., Trypethelium pallidum C. Knight, Verrucaria prasina Eschw.]
[Lichen colpodes Ach., Parmelia colpodes (Ach.) Ach., Parmelia colpodes var. colpodes (Ach.) Ach., Parmelia colpodes var. sphaeroidispora F. Wilson, Parmelia cristulata Ach.]
[Anzia japonica var. ornata Zahlbr.]
[Gyalolechia carneonivea Anzi, Pertusaria carneonivea (Anzi) Vain., Pertusaria carneonivea var. carneonivea (Anzi) Vain., Pertusaria carneonivea var. tauriscorum (Zahlbr.) Erichsen, Varicellaria carneonivea (Anzi) Erichsen, Varicellaria carneonivea var. carneonivea (Anzi) Erichsen, Varicellaria carneonivea var. tauriscorum (Zahlbr.) Erichsen]
source: Goward et al. (1996)
source: Spribille et al. (2010)
[Caloplaca oblongula (H. Magn.) Wetmore, Lecidea oblongula H. Magn.]
[Bacidia viridifarinosa Coppins & P. James]
source: Tønsberg (1997)
[Cetraria andrejevii Oksner, Cetraria simmonsii Krog]
[Cetraria elenkinii Krog, Cetraria nigricascens (Nyl.) Elenkin, Cetraria nigricascens var. nigricascens (Nyl.) Elenkin, Cetraria nigricascens var. tominii Rass., Cetraria siberica, Cetraria sibirica H. Magn., Platysma nigricascens Nyl.]
[Pannaria delicatula (Th. Fr.) Nyl., Pannularia delicatula (Th. Fr.) Cromb., Placynthium delicatulum (Th. Fr.) A.L. Sm.]
significant change since the previous checklist version , source: McCune et al. (2020)
[Arctoparmelia aleuritica (Nyl.) Hale, Imbricaria centrifuga (L.) DC., Lichen centrifugus L., Parmelia aleuritica Nyl., Parmelia caperata var. rugosa (Wallr.) Maas Geest., Parmelia centrifuga (L.) Ach., Parmelia centrifuga f. alpestris Räsänen, Parmelia centrifuga f. centrifuga (L.) Ach., Parmelia centrifuga f. dealbata Th. Fr., Parmelia centrifuga f. lignicola Räsänen, Parmelia centrifuga f. microphylla Rass., Parmelia centrifuga f. palmata Oxner, Parmelia centrifuga f. viridescens Gyeln., Parmelia centrifuga var. centrifuga (L.) Ach., Parmelia centrifuga var. groenlandica (Lynge) Lynge, Parmelia centrifuga var. monticola Räsänen, Parmelia centrifuga var. muscivaga Nyl., Parmelia centrifuga var. nigrita Flot., Parmelia centrifuga var. rugosa Wallr., Parmelia halseyana Tuck., Xanthoparmelia centrifuga (L.) Hale]
[Imbricaria incurva (Pers.) DC., Imbricaria incurva f. incurva (Pers.) DC., Imbricaria incurva f. nigrita (Flot.) Flot., Lichen incurvus Pers., Lobaria incurva (Pers.) Ach., Parmelia incurva Pers., Parmelia incurva f. incurva (Pers.) Fr., Parmelia incurva f. lignicola Räsänen, Parmelia multifida Schaer., Placodium incurvum (Pers.) Frege, Xanthoparmelia incurva (Pers.) Hale]
[Parmelia birulae var. grumosa Llano, Parmelia separata Th. Fr., Xanthoparmelia separata (Th. Fr.) Hale]
[Parmelia subcentrifuga Oksner, Xanthoparmelia subcentrifuga (Oksner) Hale]
[Agaricus peltigerinus Peck, Cantharellus peltigerae Velen., Clitocybe peltigerina (Peck) Sacc., Omphalina cupulatoides P.D. Orton, Omphalina peltigerina (Peck) P. Collin]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Redhead et al. (2002)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Diederich et al. (2019)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Lendemer et al. (2016c)
[Arthonia stictella Stizenb.]
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates, source: Grube (2007)
[Arthothelium albovirescens (Nyl.) Fink]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Zhurbenko (2013)
source: Hodkinson et al. 2009, Lendemer et al. (2009c)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Kondratyuk (1996)
[Catenata antillarum (Fée) Bat., Coniocarpon antillarum Fée]
source: Lücking et al. (2011b)
[Allarthonia apatetica (A. Massal.) Lettau, Arthonia exilis var. apatetica (A. Massal.) J. Nowak, Catillaria apatetica A. Massal., Coniangium apateticum (A. Massal.) A. Massal.]
[Arthonia aspera Leight., Arthonia aspersa Leight., Patellaria arthonioides (Ach.) Balb., Trachylia arthonioides (Ach.) Fr.]
[Graphis atra (Pers.) Spreng., Graphis atra var. atra (Pers.) Spreng., Graphis stenocarpa (Ach.) Spreng., Hysterina denigrata (Ach.) Gray, Hysterina nimbosa (Sm.) Gray, Opegrapha atra Pers., Opegrapha atra f. atra Pers., Opegrapha atra f. cerasi (Chevall.) Arnold, Opegrapha atra f. nigrata Leight., Opegrapha atra f. platanoides Nyl., Opegrapha atra f. reticulata (DC.) J. Nowak, Opegrapha atra f. rimosa (DC.) J. Nowak, Opegrapha atra f. simplicior Nyl., Opegrapha atra f. stenocarpa (Ach.) J. Nowak, Opegrapha atra f. tenuior Nyl. ex Leight., Opegrapha atra var. abbreviata Körb., Opegrapha atra var. arthonioidea Leight., Opegrapha atra var. atra Pers., Opegrapha atra var. cubana B. de Lesd., Opegrapha atra var. denigrata (Ach.) Schaer., Opegrapha atra var. euphorbiae Vězda, Opegrapha atra var. hapalea (Ach.) Nyl., Opegrapha atra var. nigrata Leight. ex Mudd, Opegrapha atra var. parallela Leight. ex Mudd, Opegrapha atra var. phoenicicola Jatta, Opegrapha atra var. rimosa (DC.) Zahlbr., Opegrapha atra var. stenocarpa (Ach.) Dufour, Opegrapha denigrata Ach., Opegrapha hapalea (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha nimbosa Sm., Opegrapha rimosa DC., Opegrapha stenocarpa Ach., Opegrapha stenocarpa var. hapalea Ach., Opegrapha stenocarpa var. stenocarpa Ach., Opegrapha vulgata f. stenocarpa (Ach.) Leight.]
source: Ertz et al. (2009)
[Arthonia varia var. atrata (Fée) Nyl., Graphis atrata Fée]
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates, source: Grube (2007)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Ihlen et al. (2004b)
[Hysterina calcarea (Turner ex Sm.) Gray, Opegrapha atra f. heteromorpha Stizenb., Opegrapha atrula Nyl., Opegrapha atrula var. atrula Nyl., Opegrapha atrula var. hysteriiformis (Nyl.) Cromb., Opegrapha calcarea Turner ex Sm. & Sowerby, Opegrapha calcarea var. calcarea Turner ex Sm., Opegrapha calcarea var. chevallieri (Leight.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha calcarea var. heteromorpha (Stizenb.) Watson{?}, Opegrapha chevallieri Leight., Opegrapha chevallieri f. agglomerata Sandst., Opegrapha chevallieri f. chevallieri Leight., Opegrapha chevallieri f. heteromorpha (Stizenb.) Hepp ex Nyl., Opegrapha chevallieri var. agglomerata Sandst., Opegrapha chevallieri var. chevallieri Leight., Opegrapha chevallieri var. heteromorpha (Stizenb.) Hepp ex Nyl., Opegrapha chevallieri var. incarnata Riddle, Opegrapha decandollei (Stizenb.) Arnold, Opegrapha saxicola var. decandollei Stizenb.]
source: Ertz et al. (2009)
[Graphis caribaea Ach., Ustalia caribaea (Ach.) Mont.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Villella & Sheehy (2015)
[Conida clemens (Tul.) A. Massal., Phacopsis clemens Tul., Tomaselliella clemens (Tul.) Cif.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Lendemer & Harris (2012)
source: Hansen & Dute (2005)
source: Seavey & Seavey (2012)
[Coniocarpon confertum Fée]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Lendemer & Harris (2012)
source: Lendemer et al. (2009c)
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates
[Arthothelium dictyosporum (Coppins & P. James) Coppins, Arthothelium ilicinum var. dictyosporum Coppins & P. James]
source: McCune (2017)
[Arthonia aspersella Leight., Arthonia atrofuscella Nyl., Opegrapha didyma (Körb.) M. Choisy]
[Arthonia willeyi Tuck.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Knudsen & Lendemer (2007)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Grube 2007, Lendemer et al. (2009b)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Goward et al. (1996)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Hafellner et al. (2002)
[Abrothallus exilis (Flörke) A. Massal., Allarthonia exilis (Flörke) Sandst., Coniangium exile (Flörke) Arnold, Lecidea synothea var. exilis Flörke]
[Celidium farinaceum (H. Olivier) Lettau, Melaspilea farinacea H. Olivier, Mycobilimbia farinacea (H. Olivier) Vouaux]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Diederich (2003)
[Biatorina epiphorbia (Stirt.) Arnold, Celidium fuscopurpureum Tul., Karschia epiphorbia (Leight.) Zopf, Lecidea epiphorbia Leight., Scutula fuscopurpurea (Tul.) Rehm]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Alstrup & Cole (1998)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Spribille et al. (2010)
[Arthonia galactitella Nyl.]
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates, source: Grube (2007)
source: Lendemer & Ray (2017)
source: Harris (1977)
[Allarthonia hypobela (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Arthonia punctiformis var. hypobela (Nyl.) Boistel]
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates
source: Seavey et al. (2017)
[Arthothelium ilicinum (Taylor) P. James, Arthothelium ilicinum var. ilicinum (Taylor) P. James]
source: Egea & Torrente (1995)
[Arthothelium ferax Müll.Arg., Arthothelium interveniens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.]
source: Lücking et al. (2011b)
[Arthonia parasemoides Nyl., Celidium varians f. parasemoides (Nyl.) Arnold]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens)
[Allarthonia lapidicola (Taylor) Zahlbr., Allarthonia lapidicola var. fusca (A. Massal.) Redinger, Allarthonia lapidicola var. lapidicola (Taylor) Zahlbr., Allarthonia lapidicola var. macrocarpa B. de Lesd., Allarthonia lapidicola var. ruderella (Nyl.) B. de Lesd., Arthonia fusca (A. Massal.) Hepp, Catillaria ooliticola Walt. Watson, Coniangium lapidicola (Taylor) Arnold, Lecidea lapidicola Taylor]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Grube (2007)
[Abrothallus lepidophilus Anzi, Buellia lepidophila (Anzi) Jatta, Buellia lepidophila var. lepidophila (Anzi) Jatta, Celidium lepidophilum (Anzi) Arnold]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Spribille et al. (2020)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Alstrup & Cole (1998)
significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Spribille et al. (2020)
source: Spribille & Björk (2008)
[Arthothelium ilicinum var. reagens Coppins & P. James, Arthothelium macounii (G. Merr.) W. Noble, Arthothelium reagens (Coppins & P. James) Coppins & P. James]
[Arthothelium macrothecum (Fée) A. Massal.]
source: Lücking et al. (2011b)
source: Egea & Torrente (1995)
[Opegrapha mediella (Nyl.) M. Choisy]
source: Lücking et al. (2011b)
source: Seavey et al. (2017)
source: Lücking et al. (2011b)
[Bryostigma molendoi (Heufl. ex Arnold) S.Y. Kondr. & Hur, Conida clemens f. molendoi (Heufl. ex Arnold) Arnold, Tichothecium molendoi Heufl. ex Arnold]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Alstrup & Cole 1998, Hafellner et al. (2002)
[Arthonia patellulata var. nephromiaria (Arnold) Nyl., Celidium nephromiarium (Nyl. ex Arnold) P. Karst., Conida nephromiaria Nyl. ex Arnold, Melaspileella nephromiaria (Nyl. ex Arnold) Boud.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens)
[Arthothelium norvegicum Coppins & Tønsberg]
source: McCune (2017)
source: Seavey & Seavey (2012)
source: Fink 1935, Esslinger & Tucker (2009)
[Arthoniopsis palmulacea Müll.Arg., Eremothecella palmulacea (Müll.Arg.) Serus.]
[Allarthonia patellulata (Nyl.) Zahlbr.]
[Scutula peltigerea (Th. Fr.) Rehm]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Hafellner et al. (2002)
[Allarthonia phaeobaea (Norman) Zahlbr., Arthonia paralia Nyl., Segestrella phaeobaea Norman]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Hafellner et al. (2002)
[Arthonia ceracea Etayo & Breuss]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Diederich et al. (2018)
[Arthonia protoparmeliopseos Etayo & Diederich]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Kocourková & Knudsen (2015)
[Arthothelium pruinascens Zahlbr.]
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates, source: Grube (2007)
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates, source: Grube (2007)
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates
[Arthonia astroidea Ach., Arthonia astroidea f. astroidea Ach., Arthonia astroidea f. cembrae Arnold, Arthonia astroidea f. parallela Harm., Arthonia astroidea var. astroidea Ach., Arthonia astroidea var. simulans Leight., Arthonia astroidea var. swartziana (Ach.) Sacc., Arthonia cinnabarina var. opegraphina (Ach.) Leight., Arthonia radiata f. astroidea (Ach.) Ach., Arthonia radiata var. opegraphina Ach., Arthonia radiata var. parallela (Harm.) Zahlbr., Arthonia radiata var. radiata (Pers.) Ach., Arthonia radiata var. swartziana (Ach.) Almq., Arthonia swartziana Ach., Arthonia swartziana var. cinerascens Ach., Arthonia swartziana var. swartziana Ach., Arthonia vulgaris var. astroidea (Ach.) Schaer., Graphis atra var. astroidea (Ach.) Spreng., Lichen astroites Ach., Opegrapha astroidea (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha atra var. astroidea (Ach.) Schaer., Opegrapha atra var. obscura, Opegrapha atra var. swartziana (Ach.) Schaer., Opegrapha gregaria var. radiata (Pers.) M. Choisy, Opegrapha radiata Pers., Opegrapha radiata f. cinerascens (Ach.) M. Choisy, Opegrapha radiata f. radiata Pers., Opegrapha radiata var. astroidea (Ach.) Fingerh., Opegrapha radiata var. cinerascens (Ach.) M. Choisy, Opegrapha radiata var. radiata Pers., Opegrapha radiata var. subparallela (Müll. Arg.) M. Choisy, Opegrapha radiata var. swartziana (Ach.) M. Choisy, Opegrapha swartziana (Ach.) Hepp]
[Arthonia obscura var. reniformis (Pers.) Ach., Arthonia reniformis f. reniformis (Pers.) Röhl., Lichen reniformis (Pers.) Ach., Opegrapha obscura var. reniformis (Pers.) Ach., Opegrapha reniformis Pers.]
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates, source: Grube (2007)
[Graphis rubella Fée]
source: Lendemer & Ray (2017)
[Arthothelium sanguineum (Willey) Zahlbr.]
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates, source: Grube (2007)
source: Fink 1935, Esslinger & Tucker (2009)
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates, source: Grube (2007)
source: Lücking et al. (2011b)
[Arthonia cinnabarina var. speciosa (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr., Arthonia gregaria var. speciosa Müll. Arg.]
source: Grube (2007)
[Arthonia nephromiaria var. stereocaulina Ohlert]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Zhurbenko (2010)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Lendemer et al. (2016c)
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates, source: McMullin et al. (2017)
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates
[Microthelia subfuscicola Linds.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Diederich et al. (2019)
source: Lendemer et al. (2013)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Seavey et al. (2017)
[Arthonia dispersa var. tetramera Stizenb.]
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates, source: Grube (2007)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Spribille et al. (2020)
[Arthonia varia var. varia (Ach.) Nyl., Opegrapha abnormis var. varia Ach.]
[Arthonia glaucomaria Nyl., Celidium varians (Davies) Arnold, Celidium varians f. varians (Davies) Arnold, Celidium varians subsp. elfvingii Räsänen, Celidium varians subsp. varians (Davies) Arnold, Celidium varians var. intextum Almq., Celidium varians var. varians (Davies) Arnold, Lecanora glaucoma subsp. varians (Davies) Ach., Lecanora rimosa var. varians (Davies) Hepp ex Müll. Arg., Lecanora varians (Davies) Röhl., Lichen varians Davies, Parmelia glaucoma subsp. varians (Davies) Ach., Zeora glaucoma f. varians (Davies) Flot.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Hawksworth (2003)
[Arthonia lurida f. vinosa (Leight.) Zahlbr., Arthonia pineti Körb., Arthonia pineti var. pineti Körb., Arthonia pineti var. sapineti (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Arthonia vinosa var. pineti (Körb.) Leight., Lecidea emphysa Stirt.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Kocourková (2009)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Diederich (2003), Zhurbenko & Laursen (2003)
[Arthopyrenia analeptella (Nyl.) Arnold, Arthopyrenia epidermidis var. fallax (Nyl.) Mudd, Arthopyrenia fallax (Nyl.) Arnold, Arthopyrenia fallax f. crataegi (A. Massal.) Szatala, Arthopyrenia fallax f. crataeginea J. Steiner, Arthopyrenia fallax f. fallax (Nyl.) Arnold, Arthopyrenia fallax var. conspurcata J. Steiner, Arthopyrenia fallax var. fallax (Nyl.) Arnold, Arthopyrenia fallax var. ligustri (A. Massal.) Keissl., Arthopyrenia lapponina Anzi, Arthopyrenia punctiformis f. analepta (Ach.) Keissl., Cercidospora analepta (Ach.) Kuntze, Ciferriolichen lapponinum (Anzi) Tomas., Didymella analepta (Ach.) Sacc., Didymella fallax (Nyl.) Vain., Didymella fallax var. crataegi (A. Massal.) Vain., Didymella fallax var. fallax (Nyl.) Vain., Didymella punctiformis f. analepta (Ach.) Vain., Leiophloea analepta (Ach.) Gray, Leiophloea fallax (Nyl.) Riedl, Lichen analeptus Ach., Mycarthopyrenia lapponina (Anzi) Keissl., Polyblastiopsis fallax (Nyl.) Fink, Pseudosagedia fallax (Nyl.) Oxner, Pyrenyllium analeptum (Ach.) Clem., Segestrella analepta (Ach.) Branth & Rostr., Verrucaria analepta (Ach.) Ach., Verrucaria analepta var. americana Ach., Verrucaria analepta var. analepta (Ach.) Ach., Verrucaria analeptella Nyl., Verrucaria epidermidis var. analepta (Ach.) Hook. f., Verrucaria epidermidis var. fallax Nyl., Verrucaria fallax (Nyl.) Nyl., Verrucaria lapponina (Anzi) Stizenb.]
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates, source: Harris 1995a, Aptroot (2002a)
[Arthopyrenia crombiei A.L. Sm., Endophis cerasi (Schrad.) Norman, Metasphaeria cerasi (Schrad.) Vain., Pseudosagedia cerasi (Schrad.) M. Choisy, Pyrenula cerasi (Schrad.) Trevis., Spermatodium cerasi (Schrad.) Trevis., Verrucaria cerasi Schrad.]
[Arthopyrenia pinicola (Hepp) A. Massal., Didymella cinereopruinosa (Schaer.) Szatala, Leiophloea cinereopruinosa (Schaer.) Trevis., Pseudosagedia cinereopruinosa (Schaer.) Makar., Verrucaria cinereopruinosa Schaer.]
source: Harris (1995a)
[Julella fallaciosa (Arnold) R.C. Harris, Mycoglaena fallaciosa (Stizenb. ex Arnold) Vain., Polyblastia fallaciosa Stizenb. ex Arnold, Polyblastiopsis fallaciosa (Stizenb. ex Arnold) Zahlbr., Pyrenula fallaciosa (Stizenb. ex Arnold) Willey, Verrucaria fallaciosa (Stizenb. ex Arnold) Nyl.]
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates, source: Harris (1995a)
source: Harris (1995a)
[Porina plumbaria (Stizenb.) Hasse, Pyrenula herrei Fink ex J. Hedrick]
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates
[Metasphaeria subcerasi (Vain.) Vain., Mycarthopyrenia subcerasi (Vain.) Keissl., Verrucaria subcerasi Vain.]
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates, source: Spribille et al. (2010)
source: Harris (1995a)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens)
[Tricharia planicarpa Lücking]
a tentative report, source: Lücking et al. (2007)
[Arthonia abnormis (Ach.) Nyl., Arthothelium abnorme f. abnorme (Ach.) Müll. Arg., Opegrapha abnormis Ach., Opegrapha abnormis var. abnormis Ach.]
[Arthonia hallii Tuck.]
[Arthonia anastomosans (Ach.) Nyl., Arthonia anastomosans Nyl., Arthonia astroidea f. anastomosans (Ach.) Arnold, Arthonia astroidea var. anastomosans (Ach.) Ach., Arthonia orbillifera (Almq.) Willey, Arthonia radiata var. anastomosans Ach., Arthonia subastroidea subsp. orbillifera Almq., Arthonia vulgaris var. anastomosans (Ach.) Schaer., Arthothelium anastomosans (Ach.) Rehm nom. illegit., Mycoporum anastomosans (Nyl.) Branth & Rostr.]
[Arthonia rosacea Anzi, Arthonia ruana A. Massal., Arthonia ruanidea Nyl., Arthoniopsis ruana (A. Massal.) Trevis., Arthothelium dispersum (DC.) Mudd, Arthothelium dispersum f. dispersum (DC.) Mudd, Arthothelium dispersum f. ulcerosum Erichsen, Arthothelium dispersum var. dispersum (DC.) Mudd, Arthothelium dispersum var. olivaceum Erichsen, Arthothelium rosaceum (Anzi) Zahlbr., Arthothelium ruanideum (Nyl.) Arnold, Arthothelium ruanideum f. ruanideum (Nyl.) Arnold, Arthothelium ruanideum f. ulcerosum (Erichsen) Erichsen, Arthothelium ruanideum var. olivaceum (Erichsen) Erichsen, Arthothelium ruanideum var. ruanideum (Nyl.) Arnold, Dermatina ruanidea (Nyl.) Zahlbr.]
[Arthonia spectabilis Flot.]
[Arthonia subcyrtodes Willey]
[Arthonia violascens Flot. ex Nyl., Arthothelium violascens var. violascens (Flot. ex Nyl.) Zahlbr.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens)
[Arthrorhaphis citrinella var. alpina (Schaer.) Poelt, Bacidia alpina (Schaer.) Vain., Bacidia citrinella subsp. alpina (Schaer.) J.R. Laundon, Bacidia flavovirescens var. alpina (Schaer.) A.L. Sm., Lecidea flavovirescens var. alpina Schaer.]
# = various fungi of uncertain status: e.g.: those which are questionably or weakly lichen-forming; or algicolous/saprophytic; or parasitic when young but saprophytic or lichen-forming when mature; or lichenicolous lichens
[Arthrorhaphis flavovirescens (A. Massal.) Th. Fr., Bacidia citrinella (Ach.) Branth & Rostr., Bacidia citrinella subsp. citrinella (Ach.) Branth & Rostr., Bacidia citrinella var. alpina (Schaer.) Boistel, Bacidia citrinella var. arenicola (Nyl.) Poelt, Bacidia flavovirescens (A. Massal.) Anzi, Bacidia flavovirescens var. flavovirescens (Dicks.) Anzi, Catolechia flavovirescens (A. Massal.) Flot., Lecanactis citrinella (Ach.) H. Olivier, Lecidea citrinella (Ach.) Ach., Lecidea citrinella f. citrinella (Ach.) Ach., Lecidea flavovirescens Borrer nom. illegit., Lecidea flavovirescens var. flavovirescens (Dicks.) Borrer, Lichen citrinellus Ach., Mycobacidia citrinella (Ach.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Mycobacidia flavovirescens (A. Massal.) Rehm, Pragmopora flavovirescens (A. Massal.) J. Schröt., Raphiospora flavovirescens A. Massal., Scoliciosporum flavovirescens (A. Massal.) Jatta, Secoliga flavovirescens (A. Massal.) Stizenb., Skolekites citrinellus (Ach.) Norman]
# = various fungi of uncertain status: e.g.: those which are questionably or weakly lichen-forming; or algicolous/saprophytic; or parasitic when young but saprophytic or lichen-forming when mature; or lichenicolous lichens
[Bacidia arenicola (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Bacidia flavovirescens var. arenicola (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Bacidia fuscoreagens (Vain.) H. Olivier, Gongylia sabuletorum (Fr.) Stein, Gongylia viridis A.L. Sm., Lahmia fueistingii Körb., Lecidea arenicola Nyl., Lecidea citrinella f. arenicola (Nyl.) Nyl., Lecidea fuscoreagens Vain., Mycobacidia arenicola (Nyl.) Sacc. & D. Sacc., Raphiospora arenicola (Nyl.) Mudd, Raphiospora grisea (Th. Fr.) Arnold, Sagedia sabuletorum (Fr.) A. Massal., Segestria sabuletorum (Fr.) Trevis., Verrucaria epigaea var. sabuletorum Fr., Verrucaria sabuletorum (Fr.) Fr.]
# = various fungi of uncertain status: e.g.: those which are questionably or weakly lichen-forming; or algicolous/saprophytic; or parasitic when young but saprophytic or lichen-forming when mature; or lichenicolous lichens
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), significant change since the previous checklist version , source: Spribille et al. (2020)
[Cetraria chrysantha Tuck., Cetraria chrysantha f. chrysantha Tuck., Cetraria chrysantha f. cinerascens Asahina, Cetraria chrysantha f. glaucescens Oxner & Rass., Cetraria chrysantha f. pigmentulata Trass, Cetraria chrysantha f. sorediifera Savicz, Cetraria chrysantha var. chrysantha Tuck., Cetraria chrysantha var. komarovii (Elenkin) Räsänen, Platysma chrysanthum (Tuck.) Å.E. Dahl, Platysma septentrionale Nyl.]
[Lecanora albomarginata (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr., Lecanora albomarginata f. albomarginata (Nyl.) Cromb., Lecanora albomarginata f. arundinicola Gall]
significant change since the previous checklist version , source: McCune & Di Meglio (2021)
[Lecanora alboradiata H. Magn.]
[Lecanora aliena Zahlbr.]
[Lecanora americana (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr.]
source: Owe-Larsson et al. (2007)
[Lecanora annulata Lynge]
[Lecanora aquatica (Körb.) Hepp, Lecanora aquatica f. aquatica (Körb.) Hepp, Lecanora aquatica f. flavescens H. Magn., Lecanora aquatica f. subochracea H. Magn., Lecanora aquatica var. aquatica (Körb.) Hepp, Lecanora aquatica var. eluta H. Magn., Pachyospora aquatica (Körb.) Arnold, Parmelia cinerea var. aquatica Fr.]
[Lecanora arctica Lynge]
source: Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. (2008b)
[Aspicilia desertorum var. aspera Mereschk., Chlorangium asperum (Mereschk.) S.Y. Kondr., Gromakova & Khodos., Sphaerothallia aspera (Mereschk.) Follmann & A. Crespo]
source: McCune et al. (2014b)
source: Knudsen et al. (2008b)
[Aspicilia mastoidea (Lynge) J.W. Thomson, Lecanora mastoidea Lynge]
source: Nordin et al. (2008)
source: Anderson & Lendemer (2016)
source: Owe-Larsson et al. (2007)
source: Owe-Larsson et al. (2007)
[Lecanora caesiopruinosa H. Magn.]
source: Rosentreter (1998)
significant change since the previous checklist version , source: McCune & Di Meglio (2021)
[Aspicilia polychroma var. candida Anzi, Lecanora candida Harmand, Lecanora candida f. candida (Anzi) Nyl., Lecanora candida f. evanescens H. Magn., Lecanora candida var. candida (Anzi) Nyl.]
[Gussonea cinerea (L.) Tornab., Lecanora cinerea (L.) Sommerf., Lecanora cinerea f. athallina Nyl., Lecanora cinerea f. cinerea (L.) Sommerf., Lecanora cinerea f. flexuosa (Schaer.) Zahlbr., Lecanora cinerea f. incrassata Vain., Lecanora cinerea f. lepidota (Leight.) Leight., Lecanora cinerea f. macra Nyl., Lecanora cinerea f. pruinosa Vain., Lecanora cinerea f. tigrina (Hoffm.) Zahlbr., Lecanora cinerea f. virens Wahlenb., Lecanora cinerea subsp. cinerea (L.) Sommerf., Lecanora cinerea var. atroalba Räsänen, Lecanora cinerea var. caesiogrisea Vain., Lecanora cinerea var. chiodectonoides (Anzi) Jatta, Lecanora cinerea var. cinerea (L.) Sommerf., Lecanora cinerea var. contorta (Hoffm.) Hepp, Lecanora cinerea var. insularis Vain. ex Räsänen, Lecanora cinerea var. lepidota Leight., Lecanora cinerea var. obscurata Fr., Lecanora cinerea var. pandeis T.P. Brisson, Lecanora cinerea var. pumila (Räsänen) Cretz., Lecanora cinerea var. sallensis (Räsänen) Zahlbr., Lecanora cinerea var. subcretacea Nyl., Lecanora cinerea var. sublutescens Nyl., Parmelia cinerea (L.) Hepp, Parmelia cinerea var. cinerea (L.) Hepp, Psora cinerea (L.) Hampe, Urceolaria cinerea (L.) Ach., Urceolaria cinerea f. cinerea (L.) Ach., Urceolaria cinerea f. depressa Rabenh., Urceolaria cinerea f. flexuosa Schaer., Urceolaria cinerea f. patellaris Schaer., Urceolaria cinerea f. solitaria Rabenh., Urceolaria cinerea var. alba Schaer., Urceolaria cinerea var. atrocinerea Schaer., Urceolaria cinerea var. cinerea (L.) Ach., Urceolaria cinerea var. notata Ach., Urceolaria cinerea var. vulgaris Schaer., Zeora cinerea (L.) Flot.]
[Lecanora cingulata Zahlbr.]
[Lecanora composita Lynge]
source: Owe-Larsson et al. (2007)
source: Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. (2008b)
source: Hansen (2006)
source: Owe-Larsson et al. (2007)
source: Owe-Larsson et al. (2007)
significant change since the previous checklist version , source: McCune & Di Meglio (2021)
[Lecanora disserpens (Zahlbr.) H. Magn.]
significant change since the previous checklist version , source: McCune et al. (2020)
source: Rosentreter (1998)
source: Owe-Larsson et al. (2007)
[Lecanora glaucopsina Nyl.]
source: Knudsen 2005b, Owe-Larsson et al. (2007)
[Aspicilia insolata (H. Magn.) Hav., Lecanora insolata H. Magn.]
source: Fryday (2001)
[Lecanora heteroplaca Zahlbr.]
source: Owe-Larsson et al. (2007)
[Aspicilia lusca (Nyl.) B. de Lesd., Aspicilia sylvatica Arnold, Lecanora cinerea var. laevata (Ach.)Tuck., Lecanora laevata (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora laevata f. laevata (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora laevata f. obscurata H. Magn., Lecanora laevata f. pallidior H. Magn., Lecanora laevata f. sylvatica (Arnold) H. Magn., Lecanora laevata f. vitrea (Anzi) H. Magn., Lecanora laevata var. laevata (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora laevata var. radians H. Magn., Lecanora lusca Nyl., Lecanora sylvatica (Arnold) Sandst., Sagedia laevata Ach., Urceolaria laevata (Ach.) Duby]
[Lecanora lesleyana (Darb.) Paulson]
[Lecanora limitata H. Magn.]
source: McCune et al. (2014b)
[Lecanora basaltica Lynge, Lecanora narssaquensis Lynge]
source: Owe-Larsson et al. (2007)
[Lecanora nikrapensis (Darb.) Zahlbr.]
[Lecanora novae-semliae Zahlbr.]
source: Owe-Larsson et al. (2007)
source: Lendemer et al. (2013)
source: Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. (2008b)
significant change since the previous checklist version , source: McCune & Di Meglio (2021)
[Lecanora peltastictoides Hasse]
source: Knudsen & Kocourková (2013)
[Lecanora pergibbosa H. Magn.]
[Lecanora perradiata Nyl.]
source: Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. (2008b)