Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: continuous, usually superficial on the substrate and well defined but sometimes disappearing upper surface: greenish brown, gray, brown or blackish, smooth or cracked photobiont: a trentepohlioid alga or absent Perithecia: hemispherical, black, semi-immersed in the thallus or sessile, c. 0.2-0.35 mm diam. involucrellum: shiny, black, extending ± halfway down exciple, not continuous below the exciple; true ascomatal wall: black, absent below the hamathecium exciple: outer layers brown-black, inner layers ± colorless hamathecium: composed of nearly unbranched pseudoparaphyses, not anastomosing; filaments: c. 0.5-1 µm wide, not inspersed with oil droplets asci: cylindrical, c. 75-100 x 10-15 µm, with 8, irregularly arranged ascospores ascospores: hyaline, fusiform, 3-septate (starting with a median euseptum), 16-25 x 4-6 µm; walls: not ornamented, without a gelatinous sheath Spot tests: all negative, UV negative Secondary metabolites: none detected. Substrate and ecology: on various rock types World distribution: cosmopolitan but primarily temperate Sonoran distribution: so far collected on the Channel Islands (Califonia) and in Sinaloa.