Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: foliose, continuous with margin rounded or lobate, 3-10 cm wide, loosely adnate lobes: irregular, broadly elongate, marginally entire or crenulate, often folded; lobe tips usually subrotund to rotund, often ascending,; marginally lobulate upper surface: dark greenish black, covered with scattered, white hairs, epruinose, lacking soredia or isidia upper cortex: multilayered, paraplectenchymatous, 10-30 µm thick medulla: white or yellow, loose hyphae, 40-260 µm thick photobionts: Scytonema lower cortex: multilayered, paraplectenchymatous, 20-40 µm thick lower surface: dark greenish black, glabrous; attached by fasciculate rhizines, cyphellae and pseudocyphellae absent Apothecia: orbicular, cup-shaped, up to 1.2 mm wide, sessile, laminal on the upper surface disc: reddish brown, flat margin: paraplectenchymatous exciple: hyaline or light brown, 20-30 µm thick, epihymenium: brown or brownish yellow hymenium: colorless, 60-90 µm tall; paraphyses: +branched, septate, apically capitate; hypothecium: hyaline asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: , fusiform, hyaline, 1-septate, 18-26 x 5-9 µm Conidiomata: pycnidial, absent or present, marginal, semi-immersed, punctiform, ostiole dark conidia: bacilliform, 9-16 x 1 µm Spot tests: all spot test negative Secondary metabolite: congyrophoric acid. Habitat and ecology: on rocks and soil among mosses in moist habitats World distribution: South America and Mexico Sonoran distribution: limited to the Sierra Madre Occidental in central Sinaloa.