Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: fruticose, shrubby, up to 3 cm long branching: sparingly to irregularly branched, growing from a narrow holdfast branches: solid, flattened, 1-3.5 mm wide surface: greenish yellow, rugose, reticulately to irregularly ridged, striation caused by scattered chondroid strands often conspicuous, esorediate pseudocyphellae: common, laminal or marginal, tuberculate cortex: thin; chondroid strands: irregularly thick, smooth or weakly cracked Apothecia: common, subterminal, stipitate disc: concave to plane, fringed by white lines; margin: concolorous with the thallus, often with pseudocyphellae, rarely lobulate asci: elongate-clavate, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, 1-septate, broadly fusiform, 12-14 x 3.5-5 µm Pycnidia: not observed Spot tests: cortex K-, C-, KC+ yellow, P-; medulla: K+ yellow or yellow turning dark red, C-, KC-, P+ orange or red Secondary metabolites: cortex with usnic acid (major); medulla with (race 1) divaricatic acid (major); (race 2) cryptochlorophaeic acid (major). Substrate and ecology: on bark or twigs World distribution: North, Central and South America and East Africa (Kenya) Sonoran distribution: Baja California Sur and Sinaloa.