Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: small foliose, c. circular in outline, dichotomously to irregularly lobate lobes: narrow, flat, linear to sublinear, elongate; apices: truncate, sometime crenate, ciliate; cilia: simple or rarely branched upper surface: gray, commonly emaculate (rarely sparsely maculate), with or without soredia, pustules or isidia, pseudocyphellae absent upper cortex: pored epicortex, palisade plectenchymatous medulla: white or rarely partly pale yellow, cell walls containing isolichenan photobionts: primary one a Trebouxia, secondary photobiont absent lower surface: black or ivory to pale brown, rhizinate; rhizines: concolorous with lower side, simple to sparsely furcated or dichotomous Ascomata: apothecial, laminal, sessile or subpedicellate, imperforate; exciple: gray or hyaline; epithecium: brown or brownish yellow; hypothecium: hyaline, asci: lecanoral, wall layers apex thickened, apex amyloid, axial body divergent towards apex, 8-spored ascospores: simple, broadly ellipsoid, 9-20 x 6-14 µm Conidiomata: pycnidial, laminal, immersed conidia: cylindrical to bacilliform or bifusiform, 3-8 x 0.5-1 µm Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with some combination of orcinol depsides and ß-orcinol depsidones Geography: pantemperate, subtropical and tropical Substrate: on bark and rocks. Notes: From the original conception of Parmelina (Hale 1974c), Parmelinopsis was segregated (Elix and Hale 1987) on the basis of having apically truncate, emaculate lobes, simple to dichotomously branched rhizines, larger spores and smaller conidia.