Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Mycelium: immersed, pale brown, smooth, 2.5-4 µm wide conidiophores: superficial, dark brown, unbranched, straight, septate, slightly constricted at the septa, smooth, thick-walled, mostly 40-80 x 7-9 µm conidiogenous cells: dark brown, not clearly defined and almost indistinguishable from the cells of the conidiophores conidia: dark brown, mostly 1-septate, slightly constricted at the septum, catenate, dry, doliiform, smooth, thick-walled, often separating with difficulty, 18-25 x 7-9 µm. Hosts: thallus of Phaeophyscia orbicularis, once reported from Physconia World distribution: Europe and North America Sonoran distribution: collected in California just outside of the Sonoran region (San Luis Obispo County), and consequently expected to be found farther south.