Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: crustose, endo- to episubstratal, warted-areolate to subsquamulose or contiguous surface: pale beige to dark gray, often with green or brown tints, sorediate or esorediate, without isidia photobiont: primary one a unicellular green alga, secondary one absent Ascomata: apothecial, lecideine, sessile with a constricted base, typically forming irregular clusters of individual apothecia proliferating from the hymenium and exciple of older apothecia disc: dark brown to almost black, dull, often white or gray pruinose margin: mostly thin, persistent exciple: cupular, composed of densely entangled hyphae with +rounded cell lumina, often pigmented brown due to minute granules inspersed between the hyphae hymenium: +unpigmented, up to 70 µm thick, with a granular epihymenial layer; paraphyses: apically brown, weakly to moderately branched and anastomosing asci: lacking an ocular chamber, of the Micarea-type, with an I+ blue tholus containing a darker staining, narrow and indistinct tube structure, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple or very rarely 1-septate, non-halonate Conidiomata: pycnidial conidia: filiform Secondary metabolites: di-or tridepsides, dibenzofurans Geography: in temperate or boreal regions of both hemispheres Substrate: decaying or burnt wood, mostly of conifers or eucalypts, bare soil, or bryophytes. Notes: Among species of Lecidea s. lat. (where it formerly was placed), Hertelidea is characterized by a cupulate exciple and a Micarea-type ascus. Small, dark brown apothecia with a narrow, sharply delimited and often slightly pruinose edge are a typical feature of several species and are often arranged in dense clusters.