Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: foliose, orbicular but sometimes irregular, small, less than 3 cm diam., very tightly adnate, densely lobate lobes: narrow, 0.3-0.6 (-1.0) mm wide, radiating, partially imbricate, usually plane, tips adnate upper surface: gray brown to dark brown, paler at lobe-tips, rarely white pruinose, sorediate soredia: sparse or abundant, often red-orange, granular, laminal in maculiform, capitate to crateriform soralia; isidia absent medulla: orange to red or red-brown lower surface: blackish centrally, grayish at lobe tips, erhizinate or rarely a few rhizines present Apothecia: uncommon, c. 1 mm diam., thalline margin entire or sorediate; hypothecium: reddish ascospores: brown, ellipsoid, 1-septate, Pachysporaria type, 16-18 x 8-10 µm Pycnidia: ± common, inserted with black weakly protruding tips conidia: filiform, 15-20 x 0.5-1 µm Spot tests: cortex and medulla K- C-, KC-, P- Secondary metabolites: skyrin. Substrate and ecology: growing on nutrient rich, riparian trees, such as Prosopis, at low to intermediate elevations World distribution: Hawaii (type) and East Africa Sonoran distribution: thus far only known from several localities in Sonora.