Publicación: Bungartz, F., Frauke Ziemmeck, F., Yánez Ayabaca, A. & Nugra, F. (2019): Lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi from Galapagos (Ecuador), Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria/Consorcio de Herbarios de Líquenes de América Latina.
Comentarios: Please click here to download the Reference List as a PDF.

Opciones
Buscar:
Nombres Comunes
Sinónimos
Filtro:
Mostrar Sinónimos
Nombres Comunes
Mostrar como Imágenes
Notas & Vouchers
Autores del Taxón
Mostrar Taxa Alfabéticamente
Familias: 20
Géneros: 34
Especies: 61
Total de Taxa (detalles): 63
[Urceolaria citrina Taylor]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Misidentification for A. chrysops, fide K. Knudsen (pers. comm., 2007).
[Alectoria luteola Mont., Alectoria stigmata Bystrek, Alectoria subsarmentosa Stirt.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Misidentifications of Ramalina usnea, fide Weber (1966) & fide F. Bungartz annotations, 2009.
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, The record cited in Weber 1986) is based on a COLO exsiccati specimen (distributed as Bacidia cf. millegrana, no. 121; L-41552, COLO 185646); the specimen examined from this exsiccati deposited in COLO is annotated by Weber as "...compares well with Vainio, Exsicc. No. 336 from Minas Gerais, Lafayette, 1885"; although the Brazilian Vainio spcimen was not examined, the material from Galapagos clearly looks nothing like the type specimen of B. millegranum from the herbarium of Müll. Arg. in G (G-209674).
[Bacidia luteola (Schrad.) Mudd, Bacidia luteola f. areolata Oxner, Bacidia luteola f. chlorotica Zahlbr., Bacidia luteola f. conspondens Zahlbr., Bacidia luteola f. luteola (Ach.) Mudd, Bacidia luteola f. porriginosa (Turner) Oxner, Bacidia luteola var. luteola (Ach.) Mudd, Bacidia luteola var. porriginosa (Turner) A.L. Sm., Bacidia rubella var. porriginosa (Turner) H. Olivier, Biatora luteola (Schrad.) Fr., Biatora luteola f. luteola (Schrad.) Fr., Biatora luteola var. luteola (Schrad.) Fr., Biatora luteola var. schweinitzii Tuck., Biatora rubella (Hoffm.) Rabenh., Lecidea granulosa var. porriginosa (Turner) Clemente, Lecidea luteola (Schrad.) Ach., Lecidea luteola var. acerina Ach., Lecidea luteola var. americana Fée, Lecidea luteola var. erysibe (Ach.) Ach., Lecidea luteola var. luteola (Schrad.) Ach., Lecidea luteola var. rubella Ach., Lichen luteolus Schrad., Lichen porriginosus Turner, Ochrolechia luteola (Schrad.) Overeem, Patellaria luteola (Schrad.) Müll. Arg., Patellaria rubella (Hoffm.) DC., Secoliga rubella (Hoffm.) Stizenb.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Misidentification of Bacidia russeola (Kremp.) Zahlbr.; the record is based on one specimen originally identified by Weber as B. luteola (Schrad.) Mudd., it was later published in Weber (1986) as B. rubella; B. rubella, however has a northern temperate distribution and the specimen agrees well with B. russeola.
[Amphiloma elegans (Link) Körb., Amphiloma elegans var. bifrons Müll. Arg., Amphiloma elegans var. caespitosum Müll. Arg., Amphiloma elegans var. elegans (Link) Körb., Callopisma elegans (Link) Trevis., Caloplaca dissidens (Nyl.) Mérat, Caloplaca elegans f. crenata (Cromb.) I.M. Lamb, Caloplaca elegans f. elegans (Link) Th. Fr., Caloplaca elegans f. subvitellina Suza, Caloplaca elegans f. tenuis (Wahlenb.) Oxner, Caloplaca elegans var. athallina (A. Wilson) Zahlbr., Caloplaca elegans var. bifrons (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca elegans var. caespitosa Müll. Arg., Caloplaca elegans var. elegans (Link) Th. Fr., Caloplaca elegans var. gainii (Hue) Zahlbr., Caloplaca elegans var. granulosa (Schaer.) Th. Fr., Caloplaca elegans var. muscicola Jatta, Caloplaca elegans var. pulvinata (C.W. Dodge & G.E. Baker) B.J. Murray, Caloplaca elegans var. subpapillifera (Vain.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca elegans var. tenuis (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr., Caloplaca elegans var. trachyphylla (Tuck.) Fink, Caloplaca splendens (Darb.) Zahlbr., Gasparrinia elegans (Link) Stein, Gasparrinia elegans var. elegans (Link) Stein, Gasparrinia elegans var. granulosa Schaer., Gasparrinia elegans var. muscicola Savicz, Lecanora dissidens (Nyl.) Cromb., Lecanora elegans (Link) Ach., Lecanora elegans f. crenata Cromb., Lecanora elegans f. elegans (Link) Ach., Lecanora elegans f. lucens Nyl., Lecanora elegans var. compactor Arnold ex Nyl., Lecanora elegans var. ectaniza Nyl., Lecanora elegans var. elegans (Link) Ach., Lecanora elegans var. pertenuis Harm., Lecanora elegans var. sorediata Vain., Lichen elegans Link, Lichen elegans var. elegans Link, Lichen elegans var. tenuis Wahlenb., Parmelia elegans (Link) Ach., Parmelia elegans var. elegans (Link) Ach., Parmelia elegans var. orbicularis E.A. Schaer., Physcia dissidens (Nyl.) Arnold, Physcia elegans (Link) de Not., Physcia elegans var. elegans (Link) de Not., Placodium dissidens Nyl., Placodium elegans (Link) DC., Placodium elegans f. elegans (Link) DC., Placodium elegans f. subpruinosa Räsänen, Placodium elegans var. bifrons (Müll. Arg.) M. Choisy, Placodium elegans var. elegans (Link) DC., Placodium elegans var. subpapillifera Vain., Rusavskia elegans (Link) S.Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, Squamaria elegans (Link) Fée, Teloschistes elegans (Link) Norman, Xanthoria elegans (Link) Th. Fr., Xanthoria elegans subsp. elegans (Link) Th. Fr., Xanthoria elegans var. elegans (Link) Th. Fr.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, According to Weber (1986) misidentifications of C. isidiosa (Vain.) Zahlbr.
[Parmelia raunkiaeri Vain., Pseudoparmelia raunkiaeri (Vain.) Hale]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Misidentifications of Canoparmelia martinicana (Nyl.) Elix & Hale.
[Byssus candelaris L., Crocynia flava (Schreb.) Hue, Lepra candelaris (L.) Wiggers, Lepraria candelaria (L.) Fr., Lepraria flava (Schreb.) Ach., Lepraria flava f. flava (Schreb.) Ach., Lepraria flava f. quercina Zopf, Lichen flavus Schreb.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Misidentification of Chrysothrix xanthina, fide A. Aptroot (pers. comm.).
Knudsen & Bungartz (2014): In the CDF Checklist of Galapagos Lichenized Fungi, C. galapagoana was treated as Chrysothrix aff. occidentalis (Bungartz et al. 2013)., source: Bungartz et al (2013d)
[Cladonia coccifera f. asotea (Ach.) Vain., Cladonia coccifera var. asotea Ach., Cladonia coccifera var. cornucopioides, Lichen cocciferus L., Scyphophorus cocciferus]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Misidentifications of C. corymbosula (see Yánez-Ayabaca et al. 2013).
[Cladonia furcata var. pinnata (Flörke) Vain., Cladonia subrangiformis f. foliofera Szatala, Cladonia subrangiformis f. marmoladae Sambo, Cladonia subrangiformis f. pustarum Szatala, Cladonia subrangiformis f. spinulifera Trass, Cladonia subrangiformis f. subrangiformis L. Scriba ex Sandst., Cladonia subrangiformis f. subuliformis Szatala, Cladonia subrangiformis f. truncatula Szatala, Cladonia subrangiformis f. vagans Tomin, Cladonia subrangiformis var. praestigiosa Lettau, Cladonia subrangiformis var. subrangiformis L. Scriba ex Sandst.]
[Cenomyce decurva Taylor ex C. Bab. & Mitt., Cenomyce scabriuscula Delise, Cladonia flabelliformis var. scabriuscula (Delise) Vain., Cladonia furcata var. adspersa (Flörke) F. Wilson, Cladonia furcata var. asperata Müll.Arg., Cladonia furcata var. gracillima Müll.Arg., Cladonia furcata var. hians Müll.Arg., Cladonia furcata var. pungens Ach., Cladonia furcata var. recurva A.L. Sm., Cladonia furcata var. scabriuscula (Delise) Coem., Cladonia furcata var. subsquamosa Müll.Arg., Cladonia furcata var. virgulata Müll.Arg., Cladonia gallica var. scabriuscula (Delise) M. Choisy, Cladonia pungens (Ach.) Flörke, Cladonia rangiformis var. gracillima (Mont.) Ahti, Cladonia scabriuscula (Delise) Nyl., Cladonia scabriuscula var. asperata (Müll. Arg.) Abbayes ex Frey]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Most likely misidentifications of C. sphacelata.
[Cladonia bacillaris f. pityropoda Nyl., Cladonia bacillaris f. subscyphifera Vain., Cladonia brebissonii var. ostreata (Nyl.) M. Choisy, Cladonia coccifera f. macilenta (Hoffm.) Mudd, Cladonia coccifera f. subulata Hoffm., Cladonia cylindrica var. squamigera (Vain.) M. Choisy, Cladonia cylindrica var. vermicularis (Rabenh.) M. Choisy, Cladonia macilenta f. squamigera (Vain.) Sandst., Cladonia macilenta var. flabellulata Müll.Arg., Cladonia macilenta var. ostreata Nyl., Cladonia macilenta var. scabrosa (Mudd) Cromb., Cladonia macilenta var. squamigera Vain., Scyphophorus filiformis]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, All Galapagos specimens contain thamnolic and didymic acid and specimens previously identified as C. macilenta var. bacillaris are misidentifications of C. bungartzii or C. macilenta s.str. (Yánez-Ayabaca et al. 2000).
[Cladonia polycarpia G. Merr., Cladonia polycarpoides f. epiphylla (Robbins) J.W. Thomson, Cladonia polycarpoides f. pleurocarpa (Robbins) J.W. Thomson, Cladonia polycarpoides f. polycarpoides Nyl., Cladonia polycarpoides f. ramosa (Dix) J.W. Thomson, Cladonia polycarpoides f. squamulosa (Robbins) J.W. Thomson, Cladonia subcariosa Nyl.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Syn.: Cladonia subcariosa fide Elix & McCarthy (1998); Yánez-Ayabaca: Reports of C. polycarpoides Nyl. and C. subcariosa (Weber 1986) based on misidentifications of C. dactylota (see Yánez-Ayabaca et al. 2013)
[Cladina rangiferina (L.) Nyl., Cladina rangiferina f. crispata (Coem.) J.C. Wei & Y.M. Jiang, Cladina rangiferina f. humilis (Anders) J.C. Wei & Y.M. Jiang, Cladina rangiferina f. patula (Flot. ex Sandst.) J.C. Wei & Y.M. Jiang, Cladina rangiferina f. prolifera (Flot. ex Sandst.) J.C. Wei & Y.M. Jiang, Cladina rangiferina f. rangiferina (L.) Nyl., Cladina rangiferina subsp. abbayesii (Ahti) W.L. Culb., Cladina rangiferina subsp. grisea (Ahti) Ahti & M.J. Lai, Cladina rangiferina subsp. rangiferina (L.) Nyl., Cladina rangiferina var. crispatula Nyl., Cladina rangiferina var. rangiferina (L.) Nyl., Lichen rangiferinus L., Lichen rangiferinus var. alpestris L., Lichen rangiferinus var. rangiferinus L.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, The report in Hooker (1847) is most certainly not the arctic-alpine C. rangiferina, but a similar species of reindeer lichens, most likely C. confusa f. bicolor
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, The type specimen of Pertusaria colobina Tuck., later transferred by Messuti & Vobis (2002) and Messuti (2003) into Coccotrema colobinum, was supposedly collected by the Reverend T. Hill during the Hassler Expedition in Galapagos. Messuti & Vobis (2002) suggest that one of four specimens labelled (a) in the packet is material collected in Galapagos. It is, however, highly doubtful that any one of these four specimens was actually collected in the archipelago. Not a single specimen of that species has ever been found since. Instead, Messuti & Vobis (2002) cite two more specimens collected by Imshaugh & Ohlsson (MSC 43340, MSC 44816) from the Chilean cost. It is therefore much more probable that the type material of this species, like so many other specimens collected by Reverend T. Hill during the Hassler Expedition, was actually mislabeled (previously the same was already suggested by Weber (1086) p. 490); A. Fryday examined the type from FH and obverved: "The "Galapagos"
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Material originally identified by Aptroot as Compsocladium archboldianum, but this species does not occur in South America and the identification was first considered to refer to Compsocladium kalbii Frisch; the few CDS specimens are, however, an isidiate species of Micarea (Aptroot, A. 64664, 63186 and Nugra, F. 418).
[Cora bovei Speg., Cora montana (Sw.) Sant., Cora pavonia (Sw.) Fr., Cora pavonia f. pavonia (Sw.) Fr., Cora pavonia f. umbilicalis Fr., Cora pavonia f. villosa Tomas., Cora pavonia f. viridis Tomas., Cora pavonia var. pavonia (Sw.) Fr., Cora pavonia var. umbilicalis Fr., Cora reticulifera Vain., Corella brasiliensis Vain., 1890, Dictyonema glabratum (Sprengel) D. Hawksw., Dictyonema montanum (Sw.) Parmasto ex Follmann & Redón, Dictyonema pavonium f. brasiliense (Vain.) Parmasto, Dictyonema zahlbruckneri (Schiffn.) V. Marcano, Thelephora glabrata Spreng., Ulva montana Sw.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Previously also treated as Dictyonema glabratum fide Bungartz 2010; in Dodge (1935) und Weber (1966) as Cora pavonia; the species does not occur in the Galapagos and refer to several different, endemic taxa (see Dal-Forno et al. 2017).
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, The Galapagos record of this species described from Guatemala in (Yánez-Ayabaca et al. 2012) is based on a minute specimen from which DNA-amplification failed; it can no longer be assumed that the species occurs in Galapagos (see Dal-Forno et al. 2017).
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, According to Tehler et al. (2013) D. catalinariae does not occur in Galapagos and the specimens refer to the newly described Dirina pacifica Tehler & Ertz; according to Aptroot & Sparrius (2008) specimens reported previously to Roccellina badia Tehler belong to D. catalinariae Hasse and thus also refer to D. pacifica.
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, According to Tehler et al. (2013) D. catalinariae does not occur in Galapagos and the specimens refer to the newly described Dirina pacifica Tehler & Ertz; according to Aptroot & Sparrius (2008) specimens reported previously to Roccellina badia Tehler belong to D. catalinariae Hasse and thus also refer to D. pacifica.
[Dirina approximata Zahlbr., Dirina paradoxa subsp. approximata (Zahlbr.) Tehler]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Dirina approximata Zahlbr. fide Tehler et al. (2013); many specimens in COLO are misidentification of Syncesia psaroleuca, S. graphica and Dirina approximata fide F. Bungartz annotations, 2008; Type: Floreana, Post Office Bay, on smoth bark, Herre A.W.C.T. s.n. [LD - lectotype selected by Tehler et al. (2013), UPS - isolectotype and as Zahlbr. Lich. rar. Exs. n 269 in B, W] material not seen by F. Bungartz (no specimens in COLO?).
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Syn.: Phaeographina chrysocarpa, fide A. Aptroot (pers. comm.); misidentification of Graphis subchrysocarpa, fide Bungartz et al. (2009); specimens in COLO: Weber (L- 40405, L- 43952).
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Misidentification of Graphis rimulosa, fide Bungartz et al. (2009) and Opegrapha graphidiza s.l., fide F. Bungartz annotation, 2008.
[Byssus expallens (Ach.) Wahlenb., Lecanora conizaea (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora conizaea f. conizaea (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora conizaea f. variola Arnold, Lecanora conizaea var. americana B. de Lesd., Lecanora conizaea var. conizaea (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora conizaea var. conizaeoides (Nyl. ex Cromb.) A.L. Sm., Lecanora expallens var. conizaea Ach., Lecidea expallens (Ach.) Borrer, Lepraria expallens (Ach.) Fr., Rinodina conizaea (Ach.) Nyl.]
Records previosly identified as L. expallens belong to an undescribed species of Vainionora according to Bungartz et al. (2003c), source: Bungartz et al. (2013c)
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Cited first by Stewart (1912); rejected by Weber (1966).
[Crocynia aliciae Hue, Crocynia americana B. de Lesd., Crocynia andrewii B. de Lesd., Crocynia finkii B. de Lesd., Crocynia mollissima B. de Lesd., Lepraria finkii (B. de Lesd.) R.C. Harris, Leproloma lobificans (Nyl.) Boistel]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Previous reports belong to Lepraria finkii (B. de Lesd.) R.C. Harris.
[Leptotrema heterosporum (C. Knight) Zahlbr., Leptotrema santense (Tuck.) Zahlbr., Reimnitzia santensis (Tuck.) Kalb, Thelotrema heterosporum C. Knight, Thelotrema santense Tuck.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Listed by Weber (1966) probably because the taxon is mentioned by Dodge [1936: Santa María (Charles or Floreana) January 1934, R.W. Taylor 903], but no specimen found in COLO, CAS or FH; later checklists by Weber (1985) or Elix & McCarty (1988) ignored this taxon.
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, The only specimen upon which this preliminary identification was based (Aptroot 64602 B, CDS 44667) reacts K+ yellow to red; L. desquamescens does not contain secondary metabolites according to Rivas Plata et al. (2010).
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Described by Aptroot & Bungartz (2007) as Ramalina fragilis. The specimen mentioned by Weber (1986: 474) Sipman 63573 was not examined.
[Lepidocollema marianum (Fr.) P.M. Jørg., Pannaria mariana (Fr.) Müll.Arg., Pannaria mariana f. isidioidea Müll.Arg., Pannaria mariana f. mariana (Fr.) Müll.Arg., Pannaria mariana f. pulvinata (C.W. Dodge) Zahlbr., Pannaria mariana var. accolens (Stirt.) Zahlbr., Pannaria mariana var. curta Räsänen, Pannaria mariana var. isidioidea Müll.Arg., Pannaria mariana var. mariana (Fr.) Müll.Arg., Pannaria mariana var. radiata (Nyl.) Vain., Pannaria pannosa f. isidiophora Tuck., Pannaria pannosa f. pannosa Nyl., Pannaria pannosa var. accolens Stirt., Pannaria pannosa var. biatorina Tuck., Pannaria pannosa var. pannosa Nyl., Parmelia mariana Fr., Parmeliella mariana f. mariana (Fr.) P.M. Jørg. & D.J. Galloway]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, First reported by Weber (1986 p. 474) as Parmeliella pannosa. Index Fungorum previously suggested that P. pannosa was a synonym of P. mariana based on the Australian checklist. This is erroneous, both taxa are good species, even P. pannosa is still a good species, even if might not occur in Australia. Elix & McCarthy (1998 p. 171-172) recognize both P. pannosa and P. mariana, but suggest that the Galapagos record refers to Parmeliella mariana. The specimen that Weber collected and upon which the record is based, is, however, densely isidiate and thus refers to Parmeliella stylophora (Vain.) P.M. Jørg.
[Pannaria pannosa Nyl.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, First reported by Weber (1986 p. 474) as Parmeliella pannosa. Index Fungorum previously suggested that P. pannosa was a synonym of P. mariana based on the Australian checklist. This is erroneous, both taxa are good species, even P. pannosa is still a good species, even if might not occur in Australia. Elix & McCarthy (1998 p. 171-172) recognize both P. pannosa and P. mariana, but suggest that the Galapagos record refers to Parmeliella mariana. The specimen that Weber collected and upon which the record is based, is, however, densely isidiate and thus refers to Parmeliella stylophora (Vain.) P.M. Jørg.
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Erroneously reported online (Bungartz et al. 2016), based on a specimen collected on the continent (Ecuador, Azuay, Cuenca, along northern river bank of Rio Tomebamba, between Calle Presidente Borrero and Calle Manuel Vega, 2°52′60″S, 78°58′60″W, 2450 m alt., 13-Nov-2006, Bungartz, F. 5493)., source: Bungartz & Spielmann (2019)
[Parmelia peralbida Hale]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, All specimens cited by Weber (1986) that we examined were based on misidentification of Canoparmelia raunkiaeri (Vain.) Elix & Hale., source: Bungartz & Spielmann (2019)
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Elix & McCarthy (1989) include this species in their checklist despite Weber’s (1986: 490) having previously expressed doubts as to whether the original report was correct: ‘... Reported by Dodge (1936). The specimen was not found at FH or MO. This Dodge determination is not to be accepted ...’. During our survey we did not collect any specimens and found no historical material in B, NM, FH, COLO or OSC. Therefore, we agree with Weber that the original report should be considered erroneous., source: Bungartz & Spielmann (2019)
[Parmelia aberrans (Vain.) Abbayes, Parmelia caperata var. madagascariacea Hue, Parmelia nyasensis C.W. Dodge, Parmelia proboscidea var. xanthina Müll. Arg., Parmotrema aberrans (Vain.) des Abbayes, Parmotrema madagascariaceum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema nyasense (C.W. Dodge) R.S. Egan nom. illegit.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Misidentifications of P. nyasense; Specimen in COLO (40757) not seen: Cavagnaro s.n., Pinzón, caldera rim, 300 m; needs verification., source: Bungartz & Spielmann (2019)
[Dimelaena setosa (Ach.) Trevis., Parmelia hispidula Ach., Parmelia setosa Ach., Physcia hispidula (Ach.) Frey, Physcia hispidula subsp. exornatula (Zahlbr.) Poelt, Physcia hispidula subsp. hispidula (Ach.) Frey, Physcia hispidula subsp. limbata Poelt, Physcia hispidula subsp. primaria Poelt, Physcia setosa (f. virella) B. de Lesd., Physcia setosa f. deminuta Cromb., Physcia setosa f. setosa (Ach.) Nyl., Physcia setosa f. sulphurascens Zahlbr., Physcia setosa f. virella B. de Lesd., Physcia setosa var. albociliata B. de Lesd., Physcia setosa var. exornatula Zahlbr., Physcia setosa var. setosa (Ach.) Nyl.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Misidentification of Hyperphyscia adglutinata
[Imbricaria aipolia (Ehrh. ex Humb.) DC., Lichen aipolius Ehrh. ex Humb., Lobaria aipolia (Ehrh. ex Humb.) Hoffm., Parmelia aipolia (Ehrh. ex Humb.) Ach., Parmelia aipolia var. aipolia (Ehrh. ex Humb.) Ach., Parmelia aipolia var. cercidia Ach., Parmelia stellaris var. aipolia (Ehrh. ex Humb.) Fr., Physcia aipolia var. cercidia (Ach.) Nyl., Physcia stellaris var. aipolia (Ehrh. ex Humb.) Tuck., Physcia stellaris var. cercidia (Ach.) Th. Fr., Squamaria aipolia (Ehrh. ex Humb.) Frege, Xanthoria aipolia (Ehrh.) Horw., Xanthoria aipolia var. aipolia (Ehrh.) Horw., Xanthoria aipolia var. anthelina (Ach.) Horw., Xanthoria aipolia var. cercidia (Ach.) Horw.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Misidentifications of P. mexicana (all Galapagos specimens with K+ yellow medulla, but lacking zeorin); in Weber (1986) and Elix & McCarthy (1998) correctly referred to as P. mexicana.
[Squamaria biziana A. Massal.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Misidentifications of P. mexicana (all Galapagos specimens lacking zeorin, medulla K+ yellow); Thompson (1963 p. 14) suggested this might be the correct name for P. insularis, but Weber (1968 p. 478) disagrees (see comments there).
[Arthopyrenia oculata Müll.Arg., Arthopyrenia suboculata Müll.Arg., Polymeridium oculatum (Müll. Arg.) R.C. Harris]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, F. Bungartz & R. Miranda: erroneous identification of Pseudopyrenula diluta.
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, In Elix & McCarthy (1998) erronously cited from Galapagos (Weber 1993: 433), but the citation in Weber (1993) is from the Cocos Islands! Reports of the species in previous versions of this checklist were cited as "rejected"; one single specimen in CDS (Aptroot 64623) annotated by R. Lücking as P. tetracerae is extremely poorly developed and lacks perithecia; the specimen is treated here as P. distans (= P. cf. conspersa).
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, F. Bungartz & R. Miranda: all material previously identified as P. acutalis does not belong to that species.
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, F. Bungartz & R. Miranda: all specimens in CDS misidentifications; specimen in COLO not examined: Santa Cruz, on Cordia lutea, Darwin Station, Weber (L-40579), det. Aptroot, 1991, as P. cinerea (syn. of P. microcarpa).
[Anthracothecium pyrenuloides (Mont.) Müll.Arg., Bathelium pyrenuloides (Mont.) Trevis., Bottaria pyrenuloides (Mont.) Trevis., Pyrenastrum pyrenuloides (Mont.) Nyl., Trypethelium pyrenuloides Mont., Verrucaria pyrenuloides (Mont.) Nyl., Verrucaria pyrenuloides var. hibernica (Nyl.) Carroll, Verrucaria pyrenuloides var. pyrenuloides (Fée) Fée]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, COLO 192496 was identified by A. Aptroot as P. pyrenuloides, but fide R. Miranda annot. 2010 refers to P. thelomorpha.
[Biatora quernea (Dicks.) Fr., Lecidea quernea (Dicks.) Ach., Lichen querneus Dicks., Patellaria quernea (Dicks.) Spreng., Protoblastenia querna (Dicks.) Clauzade, Protoblastenia quernea (Dicks.) Clauzade, Tetramelas querneus (Dicks.) Norman, Verrucaria quernea (Dicks.) Hoffm.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Eroneously reported by Bungartz et al. (2013c); specimens belong to an undescribed leprose species., source: Bungartz et al. (2013c)
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Specimens in COLO identified as P. connectens all belong to P. cocoës and are not as A. Aptroot (pers. comm.) suspected misidentifications of P. subcinerea.
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Elix & McCarthy (1998) suggest that reports by Weber (1986) of R. dasypoga auct. non Tuck. belong to R. australiensis. Herbarium specimens in FH labeled as R. dasypoga belong to several similar species (R. aspera, R. complanata, and R. sideriza); according to Aptroot (pers. comm.) also records of R. dasypoga are also based on misidentifications of Ramalina sorediosa; Syn.: Ramalina furcellata, Ramalina farinacea auct. non Ach., Ramalina dasypoga auct. non Tuck.
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Misidentification of Ramalina aspera, fide A. Aptroot (pers. comm.).
[Lichen farinaceus L., Lobaria farinacea (L.) Hoffm., Parmelia farinacea (L.) Ach., Parmelia farinacea f. farinacea (L.) Ach., Parmelia farinacea f. glauca Bitter, Parmelia farinacea f. obscura Bitter, Parmelia farinacea var. canaliculata Clemente, Parmelia farinacea var. farinacea (L.) Ach., Parmelia farinacea var. obscurascens Bitter, Parmelia farinacea var. pendulina Ach., Parmelia farinacea var. phalerata Ach., Parmelia fraxinea var. farinacea (L.) Schaer., Physcia farinacea (L.) DC., Platysma farinaceum (L.) Frege, Ramalina farinacea f. farinacea (L.) Ach., Ramalina farinacea f. phalerata (Ach.) Räsänen, Ramalina farinacea f. rubescens Räsänen, Ramalina farinacea subsp. farinacea (L.) Ach., Ramalina farinacea subsp. reagens (B. de Lesd.) Werner, Ramalina farinacea var. farinacea (L.) Ach., Ramalina farinacea var. hypoprotocetrarica (W.L. Culb.) D. Hawksw., Ramalina farinacea var. multifida Ach., Ramalina farinacea var. pendulina (Ach.) Ach., Ramalina farinacea var. phalerata (Ach.) Ach., Ramalina farinacea var. reagens B. de Lesd., Ramalina hypoprotocetrarica Culb., Ramalina multifida (Ach.) Röhl., Ramalina pendulina (Ach.) Röhl., Ramalina phalerata (Ach.) Röhl., Ramalina reagens (B. de Lesd.) Culb., Ramalina subfarinacea var. reagens (B. de Lesd.) D. Hawksw., Ramalina subfarinacea var. salazinica D. Hawksw., Reticularia farinacea (L.) Baumg.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Acc. name: Ramalina australiensis, fide Elix & McCarthy (1998) & misidentification of Ramalina sorediosa fide Aptroot (pers. comm.).
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Acc. name: Ramalina australiensis, fide Elix & McCarthy (1998) & misidentification of Ramalina sorediosa, fide Aptroot & Bungartz (2007).
[Reinkella lirellina Darb.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Misidentification of Roccella margaritifera or R. nigerrima fide Tehler et al. (2009); initially presumed to occur in Galapagos (Tehler 2007), but later shown to be restricted to coastal Peru (Tehler et al. 2009). Syn: Reinkella lirellina Darb. fide Tehler et al. (2009).
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Misidentification of various species in the Roccella galapagoensis agg. fide Tehler et al. (2009).
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Wrong reference, therefore rejected by Aptroot & Sparrius (2008): Elix & McCarthy (1998: 253) referring to Tehler (1983: 61) who does not mention the species.
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Misidentifications of S. dichotoma s.l.
[Lobaria quercizans Michaux, Ricasolia quercizans (Michx.) Stizenb.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Misidentification for Sticta weigelii, fide Weber (1966); Acc. name: Sticta weigelii, fide Elix & McCarthy (1998); specimens in CAS: Isabela, Iguana Cove, Snodgrass & Heller; Floreana, A. Stewart No. 400; Santa Cruz, NW-side, A. Stewart No. 401.
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Probably based on misidentifications of Teloschistes chrsophthalmus, fide Bungartz, 2009.
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Weber (1986: 493) suggested that U. longissima reported by Stewart (1912) refers to U. amabilis,even though he included the taxon only in an appendix and not in his main list. Both reports are erroneous, based on misidentifications of Usnea mexicana. Usnea amabilis is presently known only from the South American continent, but not from the Galapagos (Truong et al. 2013b).
[Eumitria baileyi Stirt., Usnea baileyi (Stirton) Zahlbr., Usnea implicata (Stirt.) Zahlbr.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Refers to Usnea baileyi (Stirt.) Zahlbr. according to Bungartz et al. (2018).
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Reports in Farlow (1902), Stewart (1912), Weber (1966, 1986), and Elix & McCarthy (1998) are based on misidentifications of Usnea mexicana.
[Lichen ceratinus (Ach.) Lam., Parmelia ceratina (Ach.) Spreng., Usnea barbata var. ceratina (Ach.) Schaer., Usnea barbata var. plicata, Usnea ceratina f. incurviscens Arnold, Usnea ceratina subsp. incurviscens (Arnold) Motyka, Usnea ceratina var. incurviscens (Arnold) H. Olivier, Usnea incurviscens (Arnold) Motyka ex B. de Lesd., Usnea plicata, Usnea plicata f. nodulosopisifera (Pit. & Harm.) Tav., Usnea plicata var. annulata Müll.Arg., Usnea plicata var. decora (Motyka) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Usnea plicata var. pendulina (Motyka) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Usnea plicata var. prostrata (Vain. ex Räsänen) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Usnea plicata var. rugulosa (Vain.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Usnea plicata var. scabra Müll.Arg., Usnea plicata var. scrobiculata (Motyka) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Usnea plicata var. silvatica (Motyka) Motyka ex Frey, Usnea plicata var. sorediosa Müll.Arg., Usnea plicata var. substrigosa (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Weber (1986: 493) suggests that the records by Farlow (1902) and Stewart (1912) are erroneous, therefore including the taxon among his “rejected reports”. His assessment that these reports are “a common waste-basket for unidentifiable tropical Usnea” is quite accurate. Elix & McCarthy (1998) identified Usnea ceratina auct. non Ach. from Galapagos as Usnea rubicunda, following Weber’s (1986) statement that at least some material in FH collected by Baur refers to U. rubiginea (a name cross-referenced by Elix & McCarthy to U. rubicunda). Specimens that we have examined either refer to Usnea subdasaea [e.g., COLO 255417 (L-54989)] or Usnea rubicunda [e.g., Snodgrass, R.E. & Heller, E. s.n.; FH 197432]. Truong & Clerc (2012) also could not confirm reports of this species from the Galapagos.
[Usnea chaetophora Stirton, Usnea dasopoga (Ach.) Nyl., Usnea dasypoga f. annulata (Müll.Arg.) Hue, Usnea dasypoga f. dasypoga (Ach.) Röhl., Usnea dasypoga f. flaccida (Stein) Cretz., Usnea dasypoga f. hirtella (Arnold) Harm., Usnea dasypoga f. nidifica (Müll.Arg.) Hue, Usnea dasypoga f. nodulosopisifera Pit. & Harm., Usnea dasypoga f. scabra (Müll.Arg.) Hue, Usnea dasypoga f. sorediata Zahlbr., Usnea dasypoga f. sorediosa (Müll.Arg.) Hue, Usnea dasypoga f. spuria (Motyka) Keissl., Usnea dasypoga f. sublongissima Räsänen, Usnea dasypoga subsp. bicolor Motyka, Usnea dasypoga subsp. dasypoga (Ach.) Röhl., Usnea dasypoga subsp. eudasypoga Motyka, Usnea dasypoga subsp. melanopoga Motyka, Usnea dasypoga subsp. melanorrhiza (Britzelm.) Motyka, Usnea dasypoga subsp. stramineola Motyka, Usnea dasypoga subsp. tuberculata Motyka, Usnea dasypoga var. angulosa (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Usnea dasypoga var. bicolor (Motyka) Grummann, Usnea dasypoga var. cladoblephara (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Usnea dasypoga var. dasypoga (Ach.) Röhl., Usnea dasypoga var. exasperata (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Usnea dasypoga var. fibrillosa (Motyka) Keissl., Usnea dasypoga var. flaccida (Stein) Motyka, Usnea dasypoga var. grisea Motyka, Usnea dasypoga var. hirtella (Arnold) Motyka ex Sulma, Usnea dasypoga var. laeteviridis Motyka, Usnea dasypoga var. microcarpoides (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Usnea dasypoga var. plicata (L.) Cromb., Usnea dasypoga var. spuria Motyka, Usnea dasypoga var. stramineola (Motyka) Räsänen, Usnea dasypoga var. subscabrata Vain., Usnea dasypoga var. transcaucasica Motyka, Usnea dasypoga var. tuberculata (Motyka) Räsänen, Usnea diplotypus Vain., Usnea filipendula Stirt., Usnea muricata Motyka, Usnea plicata var. dasypoga Ach., Usnea sublaxa Vain.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, First reported by Hooker (1847), subsequently by Farlow (1902) and Stewart (1912), and then by Weber (1966), who nevertheless later doubted these identifications, arguing that they were based on “scrappy specimens collected by J.H. Andersson and Charles Darwin” (Weber 1986: 493; under U. plicata). Material that we examined corresponds to Usnea baileyi.
[Dolichousnea longissima (Ach.) Articus]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, First reported by Stewart (1912), subsequently by Weber (1966), who then suggested these specimens referred to U. amabilis (see Weber 1986). The name was also included in the checklist of Elix & McCarthy (1998); all material, however, refers to Usnea mexicana.
[Lichen ceratinus (Ach.) Lam., Parmelia ceratina (Ach.) Spreng., Usnea barbata var. ceratina (Ach.) Schaer., Usnea barbata var. plicata, Usnea ceratina Ach., Usnea ceratina f. incurviscens Arnold, Usnea ceratina subsp. incurviscens (Arnold) Motyka, Usnea ceratina var. incurviscens (Arnold) H. Olivier, Usnea incurviscens (Arnold) Motyka ex B. de Lesd., Usnea plicata f. nodulosopisifera (Pit. & Harm.) Tav., Usnea plicata var. annulata Müll.Arg., Usnea plicata var. decora (Motyka) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Usnea plicata var. pendulina (Motyka) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Usnea plicata var. prostrata (Vain. ex Räsänen) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Usnea plicata var. rugulosa (Vain.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Usnea plicata var. scabra Müll.Arg., Usnea plicata var. scrobiculata (Motyka) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Usnea plicata var. silvatica (Motyka) Motyka ex Frey, Usnea plicata var. sorediosa Müll.Arg., Usnea plicata var. substrigosa (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, see comments for U. dasypoga.
[Usnea rubescens subsp. aberrans Asahina, Usnea rubescens subsp. rubescens Stirt., Usnea rubescens var. anaemica Asahina, Usnea rubescens var. areolata Motyka, Usnea rubescens var. rubescens Stirt., Usnea rubescens var. rubrotincta (Stirt.) Motyka, Usnea rubrotincta Stirt.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Usnea rubescens is a synonym of U. rubicunda, but Weber (1986: 487) lists this taxon as a synonym of Usnea rubiginea, which refers to U. strigosa (see comments for U. rubiginea).
[Usnea strigosa subsp. rubiginea (Michaux) I. Tav.]
rejected from Galapagos Checklist, Usnea rubiginea is a synonym of U. strigosa (Ach.) Eaton (Tavares 1987). Weber (1986: 487) first cited U. rubiginea, but Elix & McCarthy (1998) subsequently referred these records to Usnea rubicunda. Galapagos specimens, however, are misidentifications of at least three different species: U. erinacea, U. rubicunda and/or U. poliothrix.