Incluye taxa de las siguientes listas:
Autores: Frank Bungartz, Frauke Ziemmeck, Alba Yánez Ayabaca & Fredy Nugra
Publicación: Bungartz, F., Frauke Ziemmeck, F., Yánez Ayabaca, A. & Nugra, F. (2019): Lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi from Galapagos (Ecuador), Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria/Consorcio de Herbarios de Líquenes de América Latina.
Localidad: Galapagos, Ecuador
Resumen: This checklist includes all lichen fungi that are currently known to occur in the Galapagos Islands. This list also includes some fungi typically associated with lichens (lichenicolous fungi, i.e., fungi parasitic or parasymbiontic on lichens) or often treated by lichenologists even though they are not lichenized. Lichens do not represent a taxonomic group, but are a classic example of a symbiosis, i.e., two very different organisms living together to form a new entity. The outside shape and structure that we notice as a lichen is built by a fungus. Inside, this macroscopic structure hosts microscopic cells of green algae (Chlorophyta) or blue-green photosynthetic bacteria (Cyanobacteria). The fungi that participate in this symbiosis belong to two taxonomic divisions (or phyla): Basidiomycota and Ascomycota.

Please click here to download the Reference List as a PDF.

Notas: additional contributors to this Checklist include: André Aptroot, Othmar Breuss, Philippe Clerc, Carolina Cornejo, Paul Diederich, Damien Ertz, Tassilo Feuerer, Marusa Herrera, Kerry Knudsen, James Lawrey, Robert Lücking, Bibiana Moncado, Christian Parrinello, Matthias Schultz, Harrie Sipman, Adriano Spielman, Ulrik Søchting, Anders Tehler, Leif Tibell, Camille Truong, William A. Weber, Martin Westberg.

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Familias: 69
Géneros: 201
Especies: 776
Total de Taxa (detalles): 781

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[Acarospora cinereoalba Fink ex H. Magn., Acarospora superfusa H. Magn., Acarospora superfusca H. Magn.]
native, indigenous, source: Knudsen (2012); Bungartz, F. 10378 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64834 [CDS]
[Tricharia vulgaris (Müll.Arg.) R. Sant.]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Tricharia vulgaris, fide Elix & McCarthy (1998); specimen in COLO 193173 (L-40433, det. Vězda): Santa Cruz, on leaves of Coffea, Horneman garden, p.p. (with Aspidothelium scutellicarpum Lücking; originally identified by Vězda as Aspidothelium fugiens), source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986)
[Phaeophyscia opuntiella (Buschardt & Poelt) Hafellner, Physcia opuntiella Buschardt & Poelt]
[Acarospora fuscata f. tristicula (Nyl.) H. Magn., Acrocordia tristicula (Nyl.) A. Massal., Polyblastia tristicula (Nyl.) Arnold, Sporodictyon tristiculum (Nyl.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Verrucaria tristicula Nyl.]
[Agyrium rufum var. pallens Fr., Agyrium rufum var. rufum (Pers.) Fr., Biatora grumosa (Leight.) Walt. Watson, Lecidea grumosa Leight., Stictis rufa Pers., Xylographa parallela f. pallescens Fr.]
non-lichenized saprophytic fungus, compare with Xylographa
[Alyxoria diaphora (Ach.) Gray, Alyxoria notha (Ach.) Gray, Graphis notha (Ach.) Trevis., Graphis varia (Pers.) Branth & Rostr., Lichen nothus Ach., Lichen signatus Ach., Opegrapha chlorina Pers., Opegrapha diaphora (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha diaphora f. diaphora (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha diaphora f. herbicola Nyl., Opegrapha diaphora f. signata (Ach.) J. Nowak, Opegrapha diaphora f. tigrina (Ach.) J. Nowak, Opegrapha diaphora var. chlorina (Pers.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha diaphora var. diaphora (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha diaphora var. mexicana B. de Lesd. ex Ruiz{?}, Opegrapha diaphora var. signata (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha diaphora var. stellata Sántha, Opegrapha diaphora var. tigrina (Ach.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha diaphora var. tridens (Ach.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha lichenoides Pers., Opegrapha lichenoides f. cerebrina (Erichsen) J. Nowak, Opegrapha lichenoides f. chlorina (Pers.) Erichsen, Opegrapha lichenoides f. lichenoides Pers., Opegrapha lichenoides f. octomera Redinger, Opegrapha lichenoides f. populina (Moug.) Zahlbr., Opegrapha lichenoides var. cerebrina Erichsen, Opegrapha lichenoides var. chlorina (Pers.) Redinger, Opegrapha lichenoides var. lichenoides Pers., Opegrapha lichenoides var. populina (Moug.) Erichsen, Opegrapha lichenoides var. subchondrina Redinger, Opegrapha notha (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha notha var. notha (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha notha var. populina Moug., Opegrapha notha var. spaniota Ach., Opegrapha pulicaris (Hoffm.) Schrader, Opegrapha pulicaris f. lutescens (Ach.) Nyl., Opegrapha pulicaris f. minuta (Chevall.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha pulicaris f. phaea (Ach.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha pulicaris f. pollinii (A. Massal.) Redinger, Opegrapha pulicaris f. pulicaris (Hoffm.) Schrad., Opegrapha rimalis Pers. ex Ach., Opegrapha rimalis var. betulina H. Olivier, Opegrapha rimalis var. rimalis Ach., Opegrapha signata (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha signata var. beta Ach., Opegrapha signata var. signata (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha signata var. tigrina Ach., Opegrapha tridens Ach., Opegrapha varia Pers., Opegrapha varia f. pulicaris, Opegrapha varia f. varia Pers., Opegrapha varia f. xanthocarpa Zwackh, Opegrapha varia var. chlorina (Pers.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha varia var. diaphora (Ach.) Fr., Opegrapha varia var. glomerulans Müll.Arg., Opegrapha varia var. heterocarpa Müll.Arg., Opegrapha varia var. lichenoides (Pers.) Hepp, Opegrapha varia var. notha (Ach.) Fr., Opegrapha varia var. phaea (Ach.) Rabenh., Opegrapha varia var. pulicaris (Hoffm.) Fr., Opegrapha varia var. rimalis (Ach.) Fr., Opegrapha varia var. varia, Scaphis notha (Ach.) Eschw.]
endemic to Galapagos, Type: ECUADOR. Galapagos: Santa Cruz Island, coastal cliffs E of Puerto Ayora near Charles Darwin Research Station, on spines of Scutia spicata, 0.449450°S, 90.179390°W, 20 m alt., 29 May 2005, Aptroot 63413 (CDS 30168, holotype; ABL, BM, isotypes)., source: Aptroot et al. (2007); Aptroot, A. 63413 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3424 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63065 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6333 [CDS], más...
[Ditremis albiseda (Nyl.) R.C. Harris]
[Acrocordia biformis (Borrer) Arnold, Acrocordia conformis (Nyl.) Hellb., Amphisphaeria biformis (Borrer) Rehm, Arthopyrenia biformis (Borrer) Müll. Arg., Arthopyrenia biformis f. biformis (Borrer) A. Massal., Arthopyrenia biformis f. microcarpa Erichsen, Arthopyrenia biformis var. biformis (Borrer) A. Massal., Arthopyrenia biformis var. macrocarpa (Körb.) Keissl., Arthopyrenia byssacea (Taylor) A.L. Sm., Arthopyrenia conformis (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Arthopyrenia conformis f. conformis (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Arthopyrenia conformis f. rhypontoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Arthopyrenia parvula Zahlbr., Ditremis biformis (Borrer) R.C. Harris, Leiophloea biformis (Borrer) Trevis., Pharcidia thallophila (Cooke) Vouaux, Sagedia biformis (Borrer) Müll. Arg., Segestrella biformis (Borrer) Branth & Rostr., Sphaerella thallophila (Cooke) Cooke, Sphaeria thallophila Cooke, Thelidium biformis (Borrer) Mudd, Trimmatothele umbellulariae Herre, Verrucaria biformis Borrer, Verrucaria byssacea Taylor, Verrucaria conformis Nyl., Verrucaria conformis f. conformis Nyl., Verrucaria conformis f. rhypontoides Nyl.]
source: Harris (1978); Bungartz, F. 4233 A [CDS]
[Anisomeridium juistense (Erichsen) R.C. Harris, Anisomeridium nyssogenum [as 'nyssaegena'] (Ellis & Everh.) R.C. Harris, Arthopyrenia willeyana R.C. Harris, Ditremis nyssogena [as 'nyssaegena'] (Ellis & Everh.) R.C. Harris 1990, Paraphysothele juistensis (Erichsen) Servít, Thelidium juistense Erichsen, Zignoëlla nyssogena Ellis & Everh.]
[Arthopyrenia subprostans (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Ditremis subprostans (Nyl.) R.C. Harris, Leiophloea subprostans (Nyl.) Trevis., Pyrenula subprostans (Nyl.) Tuck., Verrucaria subprostans Nyl.]
[Ditremis tamarindi (Fée) R.C. Harris, Ditremis tamarindii]
[Ditremis tuckerae (R.C. Harris) R.C. Harris]
preliminary identification, native, indigenous, F. Bungartz: Galapagos specimens identified as A. antillarum and A. parantillarum appear to have a chemistry not identical to what has been reported for these two species; the groups requires more research; Aptroot, A. 63007 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3390 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3771 [CDS], Ertz, D. 11684 [CDS], más...
[Arthonia gregaria (Weigel) Körb., Arthonia gregaria f. concolor (Turner) Willey, Arthonia gregaria f. gregaria Fée, Arthonia gregaria var. adspersa (Mont.) Müll. Arg., Arthonia gregaria var. anerythrea Nyl., Arthonia gregaria var. astroidea (Leight.) Mudd, Arthonia gregaria var. cuspidans A.L. Sm., Arthonia gregaria var. dubia (Turner & Borrer) Mudd, Arthonia gregaria var. gregaria Fée, Arthonia gregaria var. kermesina (Schaer.) Willey, Arthonia gregaria var. marginata (Turner) Mudd, Arthonia gregaria var. nudata Müll. Arg., Arthonia gregaria var. obscura (Schaer.) Körb., Arthonia gregaria var. pruinata Nyl., Arthonia gregaria var. purpurea (Eschw.) Müll.Arg., Arthonia gregaria var. rufomaculata Räsänen, Arthonia gregaria var. speciosa Müll. Arg., Arthonia gregaria var. substellata Müll. Arg., Arthonia tumidula (Ach.) Ach., Arthonia tumidula f. astroidea (Leight.) J. Nowak, Arthonia tumidula f. concolor (Turner) J. Nowak, Arthonia tumidula f. glabra (A. Massal.) J. Nowak, Arthonia tumidula f. kermesina (Schaer.) J. Nowak, Arthonia tumidula f. opegraphoides (A. Massal.) J. Nowak, Arthonia tumidula f. opegraphoies (A. Massal.) J. Nowak, Arthonia tumidula f. tumidula (Ach.) Ach., Arthonia tumidula var. coccinea (Flörke) J. Nowak, Arthonia tumidula var. rubra (Pers.) J. Nowak, Arthonia tumidula var. tumidula (Ach.) Ach., Coniocarpon cinnabarinum DC., Conioloma coccineum Flörke, Trachylia gregaria (Weigel) Vain.]
native, indigenous, fide Elix & McCarthy (1998), Arthonia gregaria, fide Weber (1986): 488, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1966, 1986); Aptroot, A. 63003 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63112 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6224 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6211 [CDS], más...
[Arthoniopsis cyanea (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), indigenous, native, indigenous, source: Diedrich (1995), Elix & McCarthy (1998)
preliminary identification; Weber (1986): 488 doubts this determination, source: Wiley (1890)
preliminary identification; F. Bungartz: Galapagos specimens identified as A. antillarum and A. parantillarum appear to have a chemistry not identical to what has been reported for these two species; the groups requires more research, source: Aptroot (2003); Bungartz, F. 3383 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6143 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65384 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6341 [CDS], más...
preliminary identification, native, indigenous, F. Bungartz: Weber (1986) erroneously reports the species as endemic, even though the protologue in Nylander, W (1863, p. 480, footnote no. 1) cites a specimen from Mexico near Tampico, collected on Rhiozophora mangle by Uzac, which must be considered the type. Zahlbruckner, A. Catalogus Lichenum Universalis 2: 75 (1923–1924) further reports the from the Antilles, Mexico, and Florida; Galapagos material is possibly identical with either Arthonia antillarum or A. parantillarum (FH 197370, 197374, 197375, 197380); Galapagos: Hassler Expedition (Willey 1890); Gardner: Snodgrass & Heller (Farlow 1902); check fluorescence, both A. antillarum and A. parantillarum are younger names and depending on UV reaction might have to be reduced to synonymy., source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Farlow (1902), Nylander (1863), Stewart (1912), Weber (1966, 1981, 1986)
[Arthothelium sanguineum (Willey) Zahlbr.]
preliminary identification; F. Bungartz: material needs verification; Aptroot, A. 64733 [CDS]
[Arthopyrenia crombiei A.L. Sm., Endophis cerasi (Schrad.) Norman, Metasphaeria cerasi (Schrad.) Vain., Pseudosagedia cerasi (Schrad.) M. Choisy, Pyrenula cerasi (Schrad.) Trevis., Spermatodium cerasi (Schrad.) Trevis., Verrucaria cerasi Schrad.]
[Arthopyrenia cinchonae var. cinchonae (Ach.) Müll. Arg., Arthopyrenia nieteriana Müll.Arg., Arthopyrenia planipes Müll.Arg., Constrictolumina cinchonae (Ach.) Lücking, M. P. Nelsen & Aptroot, Didymella cinchonae (Ach.) Vain., Leiophloea cinchonae (Ach.) Riedl, Porina concamerata (Stirt.) Zahlbr., Spermatodium cinchonae (Ach.) Trevis., Verrucaria alboatra var. detergens Nyl., Verrucaria cinchonae Ach., Verrucaria cinchonae var. cinchonae Ach., Verrucaria cinchonae var. fumida Stizenb., Verrucaria concamerata Stirt., Verrucaria prostans Mont.]
'native, indigenous, Specimen in COLO: Santa Cruz, on Scalesia, Bella Vista, Weber L-40225, det. Aptroot, 1991, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1993)
[Constrictolumina lyrata (R. C. Harris) Lücking, M. P. Nelsen & Aptroot]
source: Harris (1980)
endemic to Galapagos, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1981, 1986); Weber, W.A. s.n. [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63729 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63260 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63273 [CDS], más...
[Lecania fugiens Müll.Arg., Thelenella fugiens (Müll. Arg.) R.C. Harris]
native, indigenous, F. Bungartz: in Weber (1986) erronously cited as Aspidophyllum fugiens; material Weber 285 (L-40433). The material was originally determined by Vezda, but with publication of Lücking (2008) the species concept has changed; the Galapagos specimens has perithecia with disk-like, dentate expansion and not setae or hairs and thus belongs to A. scutellicarpum; however, in 2014 the species was discovered growing on leaves (Bungartz, F. 7088 A), source: Weber (1986), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Lücking (2008)
native, indigenous, F. Bungartz: in Weber (1986) erronously cited as Aspidophyllum fugiens; material Weber 285 (L-40433). The material was originally determined by Vezda, but with publication of Lücking (2008) the species concept has changed; the Galapagos specimens has perithecia with disk-like, dentate expansion and not setae or hairs and thus belongs to A. scutellicarpum., source: Weber (1986), Lücking (2008), Elix & McCarthy (1998)
[Pseudopyrenula aenea (Eschw.) Vain., Pseudopyrenula heterochroa (Mont.) Vain., Pyrenula heterochroa (Mont.) Trevis., Segestria heterochroa (Mont.) Trevis., Spermatodium croceum Trevis., Trypethelium aeneum (Eschw.) Zahlbr., Verrucaria heterochroa Mont.]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Trypethelium aeneum., source: Aptroot et al. (2016); Aptroot, A. 64774 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64905 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65605 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7829 [CDS], más...
[Trypethelium feei C.F.W. Meissn., Trypethelium mastoideum var. macerum Müll.Arg.]
[Pseudopyrenula neglecta Müll.Arg., Pseudopyrenula nitidiuscula (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Trypethelium catervarium auct., Trypethelium catervarium var. catervarium (Fée) Tuck., Trypethelium nitidiusculum (Nyl.) R.C. Harris, Verrucaria nitidiuscula Nyl.]
[Bathelium duplex (Fée) C.W. Dodge, Bathelium subalbens (Nyl.) C.W. Dodge, Melanotheca duplex (Fée) Müll. Arg., Phyllopyrenia tessellata C.W. Dodge, Pseudopyrenula catervaria (Fée) Müll.Arg., Pseudopyrenula duplex (Fée) Vain., Pseudopyrenula ochroleuca (Eschw.) Vain., Pseudopyrenula tessella (Pers.) P.W. Graff, Pyrenula catervaria (Fée) A. Massal., Spermatodium catervarium (Fée) Trevis., Spermatodium ochroleucum (Eschw.) Trevis., Trypethelium cascarillae Müll.Arg., Trypethelium duplex Fée, Trypethelium duplex f. duplex Fée, Trypethelium euporum Kremp., Trypethelium leprieurii Mont., Trypethelium leprosum Müll.Arg., Trypethelium ochroleucum (Eschw.) Nyl., Trypethelium ochroleucum var. depauperatum Müll.Arg., Trypethelium ochroleucum var. ochroleucum (Eschw.) Nyl., Trypethelium ochroleucum var. pallescens (Fée) Müll.Arg., Trypethelium pallescens Fée, Trypethelium phlyctaena Fée, Trypethelium quassiicola Fée, Trypethelium subalbens Nyl., Trypethelium triplex Nyl., Verrucaria catervaria Fée, Verrucaria decolorata Fée, Verrucaria ochroleuca Eschw., Verrucaria tessellata (C.W.Dodge) Øvstedal]
[Pseudopyrenula annularis var. tuberculosa Vain., Trypethelium crassum var. tuberculosa (Vain.) Zahlbr., Trypethelium tuberculosum (Vain.) R.C. Harris]
preliminary identification, native, indigenous, Syn.: Trypethelium tuberculosum. F. Bungartz & R. Miranda: thallus reacts K+ yellow, slowly orange red; according to Aptroot & Lücking (2016) this reaction is probably not caused by secondary metabolites; the Galapagos specimens still need to be analyzed by TLC., source: Aptroot et al. (2016), Aptroot & Lücking (2016); Aptroot, A. 63139 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63147 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64663 [CDS], Nugra, F. 73 [CDS], más...
[Bathelium papillosum (Ach.) C.W. Dodge, Trypethelium papillosum var. fuscum Müll.Arg., Trypethelium variolosum Ach.]
native, indigenous, F. Bungartz & R. Miranda: According to Harris (1995) Trypethelium ochroleucum and Astrothelium variosolum are identical in all characters but their stromata formation; Trypethelium nitidiusculum is identical to Trypothelium ochroleucum in all characters but the presence of lichexanthone. According to Aptroot et al. (2016) all three species are distinct and treated in the genus Astrothelium., source: Aptroot et al. (2016), Harris (1995), Kirk (2010); Bungartz, F. 5815 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4443 [CDS]
[Bacidia aphiahica, Bacidia apiahica (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Lecania apiahica (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Maronea apiahica (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Patellaria apiahica Müll.Arg.]
[Bacidia pallidocarnea (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Patellaria pallidocarnea Müll.Arg.]
[Astrothelium degenerans (Vain.) Aptroot & Lücking, Pseudopyrenula degenerans Vain., Trypethelium degenerans (Vain.) Zahlbr.]
[Didymosphaeria coccifera Vain., Didymosphaeria coccifera var. cinereorubicosa Vain., Didymosphaeria detincta (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Microthelia miculiformis Nyl. ex Müll. Arg., Microthelia miculiformis var. detincta Müll.Arg., Mycomicrothelia miculiformis (Nyl. ex Müll. Arg.) D. Hawksw., Verrucaria miculiformis Nyl.]
[Didymosphaeria baccharidis Starbäck, Didymosphaeria coccifera var. cinereorubricosa Vain., Microthelia subfallens Müll.Arg., Mycomicrothelia subfallens (Mull. Arg.) D. Hawksw., Verrucaria subfallens Nyl.]
[Didymosphaeria palaquii Vain., Microthelia albidella Müll.Arg., Microthelia leucothallina Vain., Microthelia thelena (Ach.) Trev., Mycomicrothelia thelena (Ach.) D. Hawksw., Verrucaria thelena Ach.]
[Biatora leucoxantha (Spreng.) Bél., Heterothecium leucoxanthum (Spreng.) A. Massal., Lecidea leucoxantha Spreng., Lopadium leucoxanthum (Spreng.) Zahlbr., Lopadium leucoxanthum f. leucoxanthum (Spreng.) Zahlbr., Lopadium leucoxanthum f. sorediatum Zahlbr., Lopadium leucoxanthum var. albidius Zahlbr., Lopadium leucoxanthum var. leucoxanthum (Spreng.) Zahlbr., Lopadium leucoxanthum var. ussuriense Oxner, Miltidea leucoxantha (Spreng.) Stirt., Patellaria leucoxantha (Spreng.) Spreng., Sporopodium leucoxanthum (Spreng.) Vain., Sporopodium leucoxanthum var. leucoxanthum (Spreng.) Vain., Sporopodium leucoxanthum var. microcarpa Räsänen, Sporopodium leucoxanthum var. microcarpum Räsänen, Xanthocarpia leucoxantha (Spreng.) C. Müll.]
native, indigenous, F. Bungartz: the Galapagos material is densely diffusely sorediate across the entire thallus and therefore not B. leucoxantha s.str.; the specimen collected by Pike (COLO L-55433) examined by J. Hafellner 1983 identified as B. leucoxantha is also densely sorediate., source: Bungartz & et al. (2013c), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986)
native, indigenous, F. Bungartz: originally described from the Falkland Islands (in Fryday & Øvstedal 2012); morphologically and anatomically the Galapagos material is identical to the Falkland specimens; the chemistry of the type and Galapagos material was analyzed by J.A. Elix, who found 2’-O-methylperlatolic acid in both., source: Fryday & Øvstedal (2012)
preliminary identification, native, indigenous, Syn.: Buellia modesta, fide Elix & McCarthy (1998), source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986); Aptroot, A. 63020 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9976 [CDS]
[Buellia parasema de Not., Buellia parasema var. triphragmia (Nyl.) Th. Fr., Hafellia disciformis (Fr.) Marbach & H. Mayrhofer]
[Baeomyces capensis Taylor, Diploicia capensis (Taylor) C.W. Dodge]
[Cratiria lauri-cassiae (Fée) Marbach, Mannia lauri-cassiae (Fée) Trevis.]
native, indigenous, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986)
[Buellia australica Räsänen, Buellia glauziouana, Rinodina mamillana Tuck., Rinodina thomae Tuck.]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Rinodina mamillana, fide Elix & McCarthy (1998), source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1966, 1986)
[Buellia oidalea var. penichra Tuck., Buellia penichra (Tuck.) Hasse, Diplotomma penichrum (Tuck.) Szat., Rhizocarpon oidaleum (Nyl.) Fink, Rhizocarpon penichrum (Tuck.) G. Merr.]
[Lecidea spuria var. minutula Hepp, Lecidea stellulata Taylor, Lecidea stellulata f. albosparsa Stizenb., Lecidea stellulata f. hybrida Stizenb., Lecidea stellulata f. murina Stizenb., Lecidea stellulata f. protothallina Kremp., Lecidea stellulata f. stellulata Taylor]
native, questionably endem., Type: ECUADOR. Galápagos: Isabela Island, Volcán Alcedo, upper NNW-exposed slope inside the crater, 0°27’S, 91°7’W, 1055 m, open vegetation with Adianthus concinnum and scattered shrubs of Tournefortia rufosericea among basalt blocks in the vicinity of the sulfur vents, on basalt, March 2006, Aptroot 64881(holotype CDS-31458, isotype ABL)., source: Lumbsch & et al. (2010); Bungartz, F. 8164 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8169 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8732 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64881 [CDS], más...
[Parmelia hookeri (Borrer) Spreng., Parmelia laevigatula Nyl.]
native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2013a); Bungartz, F. 8544 [CDS]
[Bulbothrix goebelii (Zenker) Hale, Parmelia goebelii Zenker, Parmelia njalensis C.W. Dodge, Parmelia scortella Nyl.]
native, indigenous, F. Bungartz: only one specimen (Aptroot 65313) has a brown lower side throughout., source: Bungartz et al. (2013a), Kirk (2010); Aptroot, A. 65313 [CDS]
[Bacidia leucoblepharia var. leucoblepharia (Nyl.) Wheldon & A. Wilson, Bilimbia leucoblephara (Nyl.) Arnold, Bilimbia leucoblephara var. leucoblephara (Nyl.) Arnold, Lecidea leucoblephara Nyl., Patellaria leucoblephara (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Patellaria leucoblephara var. fuscopallida Müll.Arg., Patellaria leucoblephara var. leucoblephara (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vain., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum f. leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vain., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum f. obscuratum Zahlbr., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum var. chloroticum Samp., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum var. leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vain., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum var. poichilum Vain.]
[Bacidia leucoblepharia var. rupicola Wheldon & A. Wilson, Bacidia rotuliformis (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Bilimbia leucoblephara var. rupicola Wheldon & A. Wilson, Byssoloma rotulifomre (Müll.Arg.) R. Sant., Byssoloma rotuliforme (Müll.Arg.) R. Sant., Chiodecton subdiscordans Nyl., Patellaria rotuliformis Müll.Arg.]
[Biatora tricholoma Mont., Bilimbia tricholoma (Mont.) Fink]
native, indigenous, searched for specimen in COLO, but not found: COLO (L-63764), coll.: Lanier, in packet with Tapellaria epiphylla, det.: Vezda, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986)
native, indigenous, source: Kirk (2013); Bungartz, F. 10453 [CDS]
[Amphiloma lobulatum (Flörke) Samp., Caloplaca lobulata (Flörke) B. de Lesd., Gasparrinia lobulata (Flörke) Mereschk., Lecanora lobulata Flörke, Parmelia lobulata (Flörke) Hepp, Physcia lobulata (Flörke) Arnold, Placodium lobulatum (Flörke) Flagey, Placodium lobulatum var. lobulatum (Flörke) Flagey, Placodium lobulatum var. obliteratum (Pers.) B. de Lesd., Placodium lobulatum var. oblitteratum (Pers.) B. de Lesd., Seawardiella lobulata (Flörke) S.Y.Kondr. & Lőkös, Xanthoria lobulata (Flörke) B. de Lesd., Xanthoria lobulata f. lobulata (Flörke) B. de Lesd., Xanthoria lobulata f. pallida Trass]
endemic to Galapagos, Type:—ECUADOR. Galápagos: Isla Sán Cristóbal, area W of Cerro Pelado on the way to El Ripioso, 0°52’S, 89°28’W, 400 m, transition zone, open Psidium guajava shrubland with Macraea laricifolia and dominant annual herb Malachra capitata, on bark and wood, dead twigs of Psidium guajava, sunny, wind- and rain-exposed, August 2008, Bungartz 8489 (holotype CDS-41135)., source: Lumbsch et al. (2010); Bungartz, F. 7295 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8489 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5480 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9653 [CDS]
[Heterothecium perpallidum (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Heterothecium perpallidum var. monosporum Müll.Arg., Heterothecium perpallidum var. perpallidum (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Lecidea perpallida Nyl., Lopadium perpallidum (Nyl.) Zahlbr.]
Bungartz, F. 6787 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5217 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6058 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4801 B [CDS], más...
native, indigenous, F. Bungartz: first published as nomen nudum by M. Westberg in Nash et al. (2002), then validated in M. Westb. & Arup, Bibl. Lich. 106: 358 (2011)., source: Nash & et al. (2002) Westberg & Arup (2011); Bungartz, F. 4107 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 10361 [CDS]
[Caloplaca reflexa (Nyl.) Flagey, Candelaria reflexa (Nyl.) Arnold, Gyalolechia reflexa (Nyl.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Lecanora reflexa (Nyl.) Nyl., Lecanora vitellina var. reflexa Nyl.]
[Parmelia cryptochlorophaea Hale, Pseudoparmelia cryptochlorophaea (Hale) Hale]
[Parmelia texana Tuck., Pseudoparmelia texana (Tuck.) Hale]
[Biatorina chalybeia subsp. chloroscotina (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Biatorina lenticularis f. chloropoliza (Nyl.) Arnold, Biatorina lenticularis var. chloropoliza (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Catillaria chloroscotina (Nyl.) Arnold, Lecidea chloropoliza (Nyl.) Nyl., Lecidea chloroscotina Nyl., Lecidea lenticularis f. chloropoliza Nyl.]
[Biatora atropurpurea (Schaer.) Hepp, Biatorina atropurpurea (Schaer.) A. Massal., Biatorina atropurpurea var. atropurpurea (Schaer.) A. Massal., Biatorina atropurpurea var. microspora Arnold, Bilimbia atropurpurea (Schaer.) Branth & Rostr., Catillaria atropurpurea (Schaer.) Th. Fr., Catillaria atropurpurea f. atropurpurea (Schaer.) Th. Fr., Catillaria atropurpurea f. ecrustacea Szatala, Catillaria atropurpurea f. gyaliza (Nyl.) Vain., Catillaria atropurpurea f. microspora (Arnold) H. Olivier, Catillaria atropurpurea subsp. neuschildii (Körb.) Th. Fr., Lecanora atropurpurea (Schaer.) Hedl., Lecidea atropurpurascens Nyl., Lecidea atropurpurea (Schaer.) Leight., Lecidea intermixta Nyl., Lecidea intermixta var. lignaria Nyl., Lecidea sphaeroides var. atropurpurea Schaer., Patellaria atropurpurea (Schaer.) Müll. Arg.]
[Lepraria xanthina Vain.]
native, indigenous, In Weber (1986) as Chrysothrix candelaris, source: Bungartz et al. (2013c), Kalb (2001), Knudsen & Bungartz (2013); Aptroot, A. 63053 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5391 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6083 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3633 [CDS], más...
[Cenomyce diatrypa Taylor, Cenomyce terebrata Laurer, Cladia collodes (Hook. f. & Taylor) C.W. Dodge, Cladia taylorii C.W. Dodge, Cladonia aggregata (Sw.) Spreng., Cladonia aggregata f. aggregata (Sw.) Spreng., Cladonia aggregata f. cetrarioides Hellb., Cladonia aggregata f. subdivergens Hellb., Cladonia aggregata subsp. aggregata (Sw.) Spreng., Cladonia aggregata subsp. neutra Räsänen, Cladonia aggregata subsp. subminiata Räsänen, Cladonia aggregata var. aggregata (Sw.) Spreng., Cladonia aggregata var. cetrarioides (Hellb.) Räsänen, Cladonia aggregata var. straminea Müll.Arg., Cladonia aggregata var. subdivergens (Hellb.) Räsänen, Cladonia aggregata var. tenera F. Wilson, Cladonia cornicularia Flörke, Cladonia gorgonea var. subrangiferina Nyl., Cladonia gorgonina (Bory) Vain., Cladonia gorgonina f. decumbens Abbayes, Cladonia gorgonina f. gorgonina (Bory) Vain., Cladonia gorgonina var. gorgonina (Bory) Vain., Cladonia gorgonina var. subrangiferina (Nyl.) Vain., Cladonia gorgonina var. turgidior (Nyl.) Vain., Cladonia terebrata (Laurer) Flörke, Coralloides gorgonina Bory, Dufourea collodes Hook. f. & Taylor, Lichen aggregatus Sw., Stereocaulon aggregatum (Sw.) Raeusch.]
native, indigenous, source: continental reports Nöske & Sipman (2004: 93); Galápagos: Ahti (2000), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1981, 1986), Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013); Weber, W.A. s.n. [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63205 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3971 [CDS], Ertz, D. 11709 [CDS], más...
[Cladonia sylvatica (L.) Rab., Cladonia sylvatica sylvatica, Cladonia sylvatica f. caerulescens Schade, Cladonia sylvatica f. decumbens Anders, Cladonia sylvatica f. fissa Anders, Cladonia sylvatica f. gigantea (Bory) Vain., Cladonia sylvatica f. grandis Flörke, Cladonia sylvatica f. inactiva Asahina, Cladonia sylvatica f. penicillata Anders, Cladonia sylvatica f. polycarpia Plk.{?}, Cladonia sylvatica f. pygmaea Sandst., Cladonia sylvatica f. sphagnoides (Hepp) Parrique, Cladonia sylvatica f. subspumosa Coem., Cladonia sylvatica f. turgida Anders, Cladonia sylvatica var. eusylvatica Kugan{?}, Cladonia sylvatica var. laevigata Vain., Cladonia sylvatica var. pycnoclada (Pers.) Pers., Cladonia sylvatica var. scabrosa Leight., Cladonia sylvatica var. sylvestris (Oeder) Vain.]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Cladina arbuscula ssp. boliviana; specimens in H and LSU: Isabela, Volcán Alcedo, 1970, Prichard s.n., source: Ahti (2000), Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013); Bungartz, F. 8338 [CDS]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Cladina arcuata (Ahti) Ahti & Follmann; F. Bungartz: in Weber (1986) as Cladina sandstedei (Abbayes) Ahti, source: Ahti (2000), Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013); Bungartz, F. 7495 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7739 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8341 [CDS], Ertz, D. 11823 [CDS], más...
endemic to Galapagos, Critical B2a, b(ii, iii), D, source: Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013); Bungartz, F. 5744 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5749 [CDS]
[Imbricaria ceratophylla (Sw.) Hepp]
native, indigenous, F. Bungartz: Index Fungorum (Kirk 2013) erroneously treats the taxon as synonymous with Cladonia praetermissa var. praetermissa A.W. Archer, based on the Australian Checklist, but this checklist does treat only the Australian records as synonymous; in South America C. ceratophylla is a distinct species., source: Ahti (2000), Dodge (1935), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Kirk (2013), Stewart (1912), Svenson (1935), Weber (1966, 1981,1986), Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013); Weber, W.A. s.n. [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63145 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64860 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64856 [CDS], más...
[Cenomyce chlorophaea Flörke ex Sommerf., Cladonia pyxidata subsp. chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) V. Wirth, Cladonia pyxidata var. chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Flörke]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Cladina confusa f. bicolor, Cladonia polia R. Sant.; Bungartz: distributed as exsiccate of Cladonia polia (Weber, Lich. Exs. 106; see Weber 1981), synonymized by Ahti (2000) with Cladina confusa f. bicolor., source: Ahti (2000), Weber (1981), Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013); Luong, T.T. s.n. [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64674 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3986 [CDS], Ertz, D. 11797 [CDS], más...
native, indigenous, source: Ahti (2000), Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013); Bungartz, F. 8334 [CDS]
native, indigenous, fide annotations T. Ahti, 2010, source: Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013); Aptroot, A. 63384 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65262 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65721 [CDS]
[Cladonia chlorophaea var. grayi (G. Merr.) P.A. Duvign., Cladonia pyxidata subsp. grayi (G. Merr. ex Sandst.) V. Wirth]
[Cladonia bacillaris f. pityropoda Nyl., Cladonia bacillaris f. subscyphifera Vain., Cladonia brebissonii var. ostreata (Nyl.) M. Choisy, Cladonia coccifera f. macilenta (Hoffm.) Mudd, Cladonia coccifera f. subulata Hoffm., Cladonia cylindrica var. squamigera (Vain.) M. Choisy, Cladonia cylindrica var. vermicularis (Rabenh.) M. Choisy, Cladonia macilenta f. squamigera (Vain.) Sandst., Cladonia macilenta var. flabellulata Müll.Arg., Cladonia macilenta var. ostreata Nyl., Cladonia macilenta var. scabrosa (Mudd) Cromb., Cladonia macilenta var. squamigera Vain., Scyphophorus filiformis]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Cladonia balfourii, fide Ahti (2000); F. Bungartz: all Galapagos specimens contain thamnolic and didymic acid and specimens previously identified as C. macilenta var. bacillaris are misidentifications of C. bungartzii or C. macilenta s.str. (Yánez-Ayabaca et al. 2000), reported by Weber (1986) as Cladonia macilenta ssp. theiophila (Asahina) Asahina., source: Ahti (2000), Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013), Weber (1986); Aptroot, A. 65100 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4256 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3606 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65202 [CDS], más...
[Cenomyce pyxidata (L.) Ach., Cenomyce pyxidata var. delicata Desm., Cenomyce pyxidata var. pyxidata Ach., Cenomyce pyxidata var. tuberculosa (Hoffm.) Ach., Cladonia conchata Nyl., Cladonia neglecta (Flörke) Spreng., Lichen pyxidatus L.]
native, indigenous, fide annotations T. Ahti, 2010 (new to Galapagos, range poorly known): CDS 31086, source: Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013); Aptroot, A. 65200 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65699 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64846 [CDS]
[Baeomyces anomaeus Ach., Cenomyce pityrea (Flörke) Ach., Cladonia anomaea (Ach.) Ahti & P. James, Cladonia anomaea var. anomaea (Ach.) Ahti & P. James, Cladonia degenerans var. anomaea (Ach.) Cromb., Cladonia isignyi Delise, Cladonia lamarkii Nyl., Cladonia lamarkii f. isignyi (Delise) Nyl., Cladonia lamarkii f. lamarkii Nyl., Cladonia lepidula var. foliolosa Müll.Arg., Cladonia leucocephala Müll.Arg., Cladonia pityrea (Flörke) Fr., Cladonia pityrea f. cladomorpha Flörke, Cladonia pityrea f. dilacerata Anders, Cladonia pityrea f. hololepis Flörke, Cladonia pityrea f. macrocephala Asahina, Cladonia pityrea f. pityrea (Flörke) Fr., Cladonia pityrea f. scyphifera (Delise) Vain., Cladonia pityrea f. sorediosa Vain., Cladonia pityrea f. squamulifera Vain., Cladonia pityrea f. subacuta Vain., Cladonia pityrea f. subuliformis Vain., Cladonia pityrea subsp. gracilenta (Nyl.) Abbayes, Cladonia pityrea subsp. pityrea (Flörke) Fr., Cladonia pityrea subsp. polyphylla (Mont. & Bosch) Abbayes, Cladonia pityrea var. javanica (Hepp) Zahlbr., Cladonia pityrea var. junghuhniana (Mont. & Bosch) Zahlbr., Cladonia pityrea var. phyllopoda Vain., Cladonia pityrea var. pityrea (Flörke) Fr., Cladonia pityrea var. subareolata Vain., Cladonia pityrea var. verruculosa Vain., Cladonia squamosa var. pachypoda Müll.Arg., Lichen ramulosus With.]
[Baeomyces strepsilis Ach.]
native, indigenous, source: Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013); Aptroot, A. 64681 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4134 [CDS]
[Cladonia balfourii Cromb., Cladonia balfourii balfourii, Cladonia balfourii f. balfourii Cromb., Cladonia balfourii f. chlorophaeoides (Vain.) Evans, Cladonia balfourii f. cornigera (Vain.) Oxner, Cladonia balfourii f. squamulosa A. Evans, Cladonia balfourii f. subprolifera (Vain.) A. Evans, Cladonia fimbriata f. balfourii (Cromb.) Vain., Cladonia fimbriata var. balfourii (Cromb.) Vain., Cladonia fimbriata var. subradiata Vain.]
[Sclerococcum parmeliae Etayo & Diederich]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), native, indigenous, preliminary identification; Index Fungorum: anamorphic Davidiella, source: Kirk (2010); Aptroot, A. 65758 B [CDS]
endemic to Galapagos, 'Type: ECUADOR. Galápagos: Isla Sán Cristóbal, area W of Cerro Pelado on the way to El Ripioso, 0°52’S, 89°28’W, 400 m, transition zone, open Psidium guajava shrubland with Macraea laricifolia and dominant annual herb Malachra capitata, on bark and wood, dead twigs of Psidium guajava, sunny, wind- and rain-exposed, August 2008, Bungartz 8496 (holotype CDS-41142)., source: Lumbsch et al. (2011) Phytotaxa 18: 44; Bungartz, F. 8496 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6584 [CDS]
[Circinaria erythroxyli (Spreng.) Fée, Coccocarpia aurantiaca (Hook. f. & Taylor) Mont. & Bosch, Coccocarpia aurantiaca var. aurantiaca (Hook. f. & Taylor) Mont. & Bosch, Coccocarpia aurantiaca var. furfuracea Müll.Arg., Coccocarpia ciliolata Mont., Coccocarpia cronia var. aurantiaca (Hook. f. & Taylor) Vain., Coccocarpia incisa Pers., Coccocarpia leucorrhiza Hampe, Coccocarpia parmelioides (Hook.) Tuck. ex M.A. Curtis, Coccocarpia pellita var. mesomorpha Müll.Arg., Coccocarpia pellita var. parmelioides (Hook. f.) Müll. Arg., Coccocarpia pellita var. semiincisa Müll.Arg., Lecidea erythroxyli Spreng., Lecidea parmelioides Hook. f., Pannaria aurantiaca (Hook. f. & Taylor) Schwend., Pannaria ciliolata (Mont.) Hue, Pannaria molybdaea var. incisa (Pers.) Tuck., Pannaria parmelioides (Hook. f.) Colmeiro, Pannaria parmelioides var. parmelioides (Hook. f.) Colmeiro, Pannaria parmelioides var. pyrrhichocarpa Hue, Solorina aurantiaca Hook. f. & Taylor]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Pannaria molybdaea, fide Weber (1986) & Elix & McCarthy (1998), Coccocarpia pellita var. parmelioides, fide Elix & McCarthy (1998); 2 specimens in COLO: 40290, Santa Cruz, Stewart, 1912, det. Dodge 1935 & Santiago, Pike 2718, det. Arvidsson, source: Dodge (1935), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986); Bungartz, F. 9572 [CDS]
[Coccocarpia cronia (Tuck.) Vain., Coccocarpia cronia f. cronia (Tuck.) Vain., Coccocarpia cronia f. palumbina (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Coccocarpia cronia var. camporum (Malme) Zahlbr., Coccocarpia cronia var. cronia (Tuck.) Vain., Coccocarpia cronia var. furfuracea (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Coccocarpia cronia var. granulosa (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Coccocarpia cronia var. incisa (Pers.) Zahlbr., Coccocarpia cronia var. isidiophylla (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Coccocarpia cronia var. isidiosa (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Coccocarpia cronia var. lividorufa (Meyen & Flot.) Zahlbr., Coccocarpia cronia var. prolificans (Malme) C.W. Dodge, Coccocarpia cronia var. subaurantiaca (Taylor) Vain., Coccocarpia pellita var. isidiophylla Müll.Arg., Coccocarpia pellita var. isidiosa Müll.Arg., Lecidea palmicola Spreng., Pannaria molybdaea var. cronia (Tuck.) Tuck., Parmelia cronia Tuck.]
native, indigenous, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986); Weber, W.A. s.n. [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63094 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63137 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3929 [CDS], más...
[Biatora lutea (Dicks.) Hepp, Biatorina lutea (Dicks.) Körb., Biatorinopsis lutea (Dicks.) Müll. Arg., Dimerella lutea (Dickson) Trevisan, Dimerella lutea f. lutea (Dicks.) Trevis., Gyalecta lutea (Dicks.) Hornem., Lecidea lutea (Dicks.) Taylor, Lecidea lutea var. eximia Nyl., Lecidea lutea var. lutea (Dicks.) Taylor, Lichen luteus Dicks., Microphiale lutea (Dicks.) Zahlbr., Microphiale lutea f. foliicola Zahlbr., Microphiale lutea f. lutea (Dicks.) Zahlbr., Microphiale lutea f. stenospora Zahlbr., Microphiale lutea f. theae Räsänen, Secoliga lutea (Dicks.) Norman]
[Dimerella minima (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant., Microphiale minima (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.]
[Dimerella siquirrensis Lücking]
native, indigenous, source: Kirk (2013); Clerc, P. 08-21 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 10458 [CDS]
[Collema gwytheri Stirt., Collema microptychium Tuck., Synechoblastus leptaleus (Tuck.) Fink, Synechoblastus microptychius (Tuck.) Fink]
native, indigenous, source: Bungartz (2008); Bungartz, F. 5571 [CDS], Nugra, F. 200 [CDS], Nugra, F. 220 [CDS]
[Collema laciniatum Nyl., Collema laciniatum var. crustosa Räsänen, Collema laciniatum var. laciniatum Nyl., Synechoblastus laciniatus (Nyl.) Fink, Synechoblastus texanus (Tuck.) Müll.Arg.]
[Arthopyrenia gyalectoides M. Knowles ex A.L. Sm., Arthopyrenia halodytes (Nyl.) Arnold, Arthopyrenia halodytes f. fusca B. de Lesd., Arthopyrenia halodytes f. halodytes (Nyl.) Arnold, Arthopyrenia halodytes var. halodytes (Nyl.) Arnold, Arthopyrenia halodytes var. hollii A.L. Sm., Arthopyrenia halodytes var. tenuicula (Wedd.) H. Olivier, Arthopyrenia kelpii Körb., Leiophloea halodytes (Nyl.) Trevis., Paraphysothele halodytes (Nyl.) Keissl., Paraphysothele halodytes f. fusca (B. de Lesd.) Keissl., Paraphysothele halodytes f. halodytes (Nyl.) Keissl., Paraphysothele halodytes f. tenuicula (Wedd.) Keissl., Pseudarthopyrenia gyalectoidea (M. Knowles ex A.L. Sm.) Keissl., Pseudarthopyrenia gyalectoides (M. Knowles ex A.L. Sm.) Keissl., Pyrenocollema halodytes (Nyl.) R.C. Harris, Thelidium halodytes (Nyl.) Erichsen, Thelidium halodytes f. halodytes (Nyl.) Erichsen, Thelidium halodytes f. tenuiculum (Wedd.) Erichsen, Verrucaria halodytes Nyl., Verrucaria kelpii (Körb.) Sandst.]
[Arthopyrenia cinchonae (Ach.) Müll. Arg., Arthopyrenia cinchonae var. cinchonae (Ach.) Müll. Arg., Arthopyrenia nieteriana Müll.Arg., Arthopyrenia planipes Müll.Arg., Didymella cinchonae (Ach.) Vain., Leiophloea cinchonae (Ach.) Riedl, Porina concamerata (Stirt.) Zahlbr., Spermatodium cinchonae (Ach.) Trevis., Verrucaria alboatra var. detergens Nyl., Verrucaria cinchonae Ach., Verrucaria cinchonae var. cinchonae Ach., Verrucaria cinchonae var. fumida Stizenb., Verrucaria concamerata Stirt., Verrucaria prostans Mont.]
endemic to Galapagos, source: Lücking et al. (2016) Fungal Diversity: 10.1007/s13225-016-0374-9, [55]; Bungartz, F. 5594 [CDS], Yánez-Ayabaca, A. 1547 [CDS]
[Lecanactis flava Vain.]
native, indigenous, source: Aptroot & Sparrius (2008); Bungartz, F. 5089 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63030 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65383 [CDS]
[Lichen auratus (Ach.) Sm., Lobaria aurata (Ach.) Kuntze, Nephroma aurata (Ach.) Pers., Parmelia aurata (Ach.) Eschw., Parmosticta aurata (Ach.) Nyl., Pseudocyphellaria aurata (Ach.) Vain., Sticta aurata Mont., Sticta aurata var. abortiva Schaer., Sticta aurata var. angustata Mont., Sticta aurata var. aurata Ach., Sticta aurata var. isidiascens Zahlbr., Sticta aurata var. microphylla Müll.Arg., Sticta aurata var. pallens Nyl., Sticta aurata var. pallidoglaucescens C. Knight]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Pseudocyphellaria aurata (Ach.) Vain. fide Moncada & Lücking (pers. com. April 2014), source: Andersson (1855), Dodge (1936), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Farlow (1902), Hooker (1847), Weber (1966, 1986); Bungartz, F. 3926 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3448 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3479 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4119 [CDS], más...
native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2013b); Aptroot, A. 64322 B [CDS], Nugra, F. 493 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63867 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4254 [CDS], más...
[Dictyonema galapagoense Yánez, Dal-Forno & Bungartz]
endemic to Galapagos, Syn.: Dictyonema galapagoense; Holotype Bungartz 8517 (CDS 41163), source: Dal Forno, Bungartz, Yánez-Ayabaca, Lücking & Lawrey (2017) Fungal Diversity 85: 58; Bungartz, F. 8517 [CDS], Yánez-Ayabaca, A. 1545 [CDS]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Opegrapha arabica (Müll. Arg.) Vain., source: Ertz & Tehler (2010); Bungartz, F. 7050 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5330 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5346 [CDS], Ertz, D. 11629 [CDS], más...
endemic to Galapagos, source: Bungartz et al. (2016); Bungartz, F. 9761 [CDS]
endemic to Galapagos, source: Bungartz et al. (2016); Bungartz, F. 7597 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7749 [CDS]
[Limboria euganea A. Massal., Urceolaria euganea (A. Massal.) Jatta]
[Diploschistes bryophilus (Ehrh.) Zahlbr., Diploschistes bryophilus f. bryophilus (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Zahlbr., Diploschistes bryophilus f. iridatus (A. Massal.) Lettau, Diploschistes bryophilus f. pachylepis Lettau, Diploschistes bryophilus f. parasitica (Sommerf.) Servít, Diploschistes bryophilus var. bryophilus (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Zahlbr., Diploschistes bryophilus var. klementianus Gyeln., Diploschistes bryophilus var. praematricus Gyeln., Diploschistes bryophilus var. rossica Gyeln., Diploschistes bryophilus var. rossicus Gyeln., Diploschistes lichenicola (Mont.) Vain., Diploschistes muscorum subsp. muscorum, Diploschistes scruposus f. bryophilus (Ehrh.) Oxner, Diploschistes scruposus subsp. muscorum (Scop.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Diploschistes scruposus var. bryophilus (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Diploschistes scruposus var. parasiticus (Sommerf.) Zahlbr., Gyalecta bryophila (Ehrh.) Ach., Lecanora scruposa var. parasitica Sommerf., Lichen bryophilus Ehrh., Lichen muscorum Scop., Mellitiosporium lichenicola (Mont. & Fr.) Sacc., Patellaria muscorum (Scop.) Hoffm., Stictis lichenicola Mont. & Fr., Urceolaria bryophila (Ehrh.) Funck, Urceolaria lichenicola (Mont. & Fr.) A. Rich.]
[Dirina herrei Zahlbr., Dirina paradoxa subsp. approximata (Zahlbr.) Tehler]
endemic to Galapagos, Syn.: Dirina paradoxa ssp. approximata (Fée) Tehler & Dirina herrei Zahlbr. fide Tehler et al. (2013); Type: Herre A.W.C.T. s.n. [W - lectotype selected by Tehler et al. (2013), B, BM, G, GBG, H, KASSEL, L, LD, M, NY, S-L6, UC, UPS - isolectotypes), material not seen by F. Bungartz (no specimens in COLO?); Tehler et al. (2013) also include the sorediate forms rarely found in Galapagos here., source: Aptroot & Sparrius (2008), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Tehler et al. (2013), Weber (1966, 1986); Yánez-Ayabaca, A. 1922 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9768 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3858 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9216 [CDS], más...
[Dirinaria aegialita var. aegialita (Afzel. ex Ach.) B.J. Moore, Dirinaria aegiliata (Afzel. ex Ach.) B.J. Moore, Hagenia aegialita (Afzel. ex Ach.) Bagl., Lecanora aegialita (Afzel. ex Ach.) Ach., Parmelia aegialita Afzel. ex Ach., Physcia aegialita (Afzel. ex Ach.) Nyl., Physcia aegialita f. aegialita (Afzel. ex Ach.) Nyl., Physcia aegialita f. coccinea Lynge, Physcia aegialita var. aegialita (Afzel. ex Ach.) Nyl., Physcia aegialita var. obliterata B. de Lesd., Physcia aegialita var. saxicola Räsänen, Physcia aspera var. alutacea H. Magn., Physcia aspera var. aspera H. Magn.]
[Anaptychia applanata (Fée) A. Massal., Dirinaria consimilis var. ochracea D.D. Awasthi, Lecanora flavostraminea (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Parmelia applanata Fée, Parmelia redacta Stirt., Physcia applanata (Fée) Zahlbr., Physcia flavostramineum Müll.Arg., Placodium flavostramineum Müll.Arg.]
native, indigenous, According to A. Aptroot (pers. comm.) in Weber (1986) probably also as Dirinaria leopoldii, source: Weber (1986); Bungartz, F. 4085 [CDS], Ertz, D. 11846 [CDS], Simbaña, W. 539 [CDS], Jaramillo, P. 3000 A [CDS], más...
native, indigenous, A. Aptroot (pers. comm.) suspects that Weber's specimens are misidentification of Dirinaria aegialita. However, TLC by K.Kalb & F. Bungartz confirms that the specimens have indeed been correctly identified as D. confusa., source: Weber (1986); Ertz, D. 12024 [CDS], Nugra, F. 105 [CDS], Jaramillo, P. 3000 B [CDS], Jaramillo, P. 3009 A [CDS], más...
native, indigenous, One specimen of Weber cited in Awashti (1975): South Plaza , Weber L-40110; Two specimens in COLO (L-40736, L-40762), coll. Itow, source: Awasthi (1975), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986); Aptroot, A. 64534 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5120 [CDS], Ertz, D. 12026 [CDS], Nugra, F. 638 [CDS], más...
[Dimelaena picta (Sw.) Trevis., Hagenia picta (Sw.) Bagl., Lichen pictus Sw., Lobaria picta (Sw.) Raeusch., Parmelia picta (Sw.) Ach., Parmelia plumosa Taylor, Physcia picta (Sw.) Nyl., Physcia picta f. coccinea Müll.Arg., Physcia picta f. erythrocardia (Tuck.) J.W. Thomson, Physcia picta f. isidiophora Nyl., Physcia picta f. picta (Sw.) Nyl., Physcia picta var. coccinea Müll.Arg., Physcia picta var. endochroma H. Magn. & D.D. Awasthi, Physcia picta var. erythrocardia Tuck., Physcia picta var. flavicans Müll.Arg., Physcia picta var. picta (Sw.) Nyl., Physcia plumosa (Taylor) Nyl., Pyxine picta (Sw.) Tuck., Pyxine picta var. erythrocardia Tuck., Squamaria picta (Sw.) Ach.]
[Graphis afzelii Ach., Graphis afzelii f. afzelii Ach., Graphis afzelii f. atroalba (Kremp.) Redinger, Graphis afzelii var. afzelii Ach., Graphis afzelii var. nivea (Fée) Vain.]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Graphis afzelii, source: Bungartz et al. (2009) Weber (1986); Hillmann, G. GAL-128 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9634 [CDS]
[Arthonia pellicula Müll.Arg., Arthonia pellicula f. pellicula Müll.Arg., Arthonia pellicula f. trichariosa Müll.Arg., Bacidia pellicula (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Patellaria pellicula (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg.]
[Dermatocarpon pusillum (Hedw.) Anzi, Dermatocarpon pusillum var. pusillum (Hedw.) Anzi, Dermatocarpon sorediatum (Borrer) Arnold, Dermatocarpon trapeziforme (J. König) Trevis., Endocarpon hedwigii (Ach.) Ach. nom. illegit., Endocarpon pusillum var. pusillum Hedw., Endocarpon sorediatum (Borrer) Hook., Endocarpon trapeziforme (J. König) Flagey, Endopyrenium pusillum (Hedw.) Schwend., Endopyrenium pusillum var. pallidum Körb., Endopyrenium pusillum var. pusillum Körb., Endopyrenium trapeziforme (J. König) Stein, Leightonia pusilla (Hedw.) Garov., Lichen trapeziformis J. König, Placidium trapeziforme (J. König) Arnold, Verrucaria sorediata Borrer, Verrucaria trapeziformis (J. König) Schrad.]
native, indigenous, F. Bungartz: previously already confirmed by Weber (1986), material confirmed by Breuss, but some specimens are Endocarpon pallidellum Ach., source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986); Ertz, D. 11947 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4306 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4159 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3587 [CDS], más...
[Chiodecton anguinellum (Nyl.) Vain., Nyungwea anguinella (Nyl.) Aptroot, in Aptroot & Cáceres, Opegrapha anguinella (Nyl.) Ertz & Diederich, Stigmatidium anguinellum Nyl.]
native, indigenous, source: Aptroot & Sparrius (2008)
[Chiodecton pallidellum (Nyl.) Vain., Platygrapha pallidella Nyl.]
[Chiodecton subgelatinosum (Stirt.) Müll. Arg., Platygrapha subgelatinosa Stirt.]
[Cetrariastrum vexans Zahlbr. ex W.L. Culb. & C. F. Culb., Hypotrachyna vexans (Zahlbr. ex W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb.) Divakar, A. Crespo, Sipman, Elix & Lumbsch, Parmelia vexans Zahlbr.]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Parmelia vexans, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1981, 1986)
[Bacidia bouteillei (Desm.) Hulting, Biatora bouteillei (Desm.) A. Massal., Biatorina bouteillei (Desm.) Bausch, Biatorina littorella (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Bilimbia bouteillei (Desm.) Hulting, Catillaria bouteillei (Desm.) Zahlbr., Catillaria bouteillei f. abieticola (Nyl.) Vain., Catillaria bouteillei f. bouteillei (Desm.) Zahlbr., Catillaria bouteillei f. degenerans Vain., Catillaria bouteillei f. hohenbuehelii (Poetsch) Vain., Lecanora bouteillei (Desm.) Harm., Lecidea bouteillei (Desm.) Nyl., Lecidea littorella Nyl., Parmelia bouteillei Desm.]
native, indigenous, source: Kirk (2013)
native, indigenous, Santesson (1952) changed the original epithet stanhopiae to stanhopeae. The epithet is based on the orchid genus Stanhopea, on which the type was found, and this name is sometimes mispelled Stanhopia., source: Kirk (2013)
native, indigenous, F. Bungartz: identification based on a single specimen (Aptroot 63929); identification confirmed by R. Lücking, previously as F. aff. comparilis (see Bungartz et al 2009).., source: Bungartz et al. (2009), Kirk (2013); Aptroot, A. 63929 [CDS]
[Graphis dumastioides Fink]
native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2009); Nugra, F. 256 [CDS]
[Graphina tectigera (Eschw.) Müll.Arg., Graphis tectigera Eschw.]
[Agonimia papillata (O.E. Erikss.) Diederich & Aptroot]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Agonimia papillata, fide Index Fungorum and A. Aptroot; Syn.: Psoroglaena cubensis auct. non Müll. Arg., fide Elix & McCarthy (1998), source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Muggia et al. (2009), Weber (1993); Bungartz, F. 5627 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5634 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5636 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65161 [CDS], más...
[Sclerophyton murex (Egea & Torrente ex Sparrius) Ertz & Tehler]
Weber, W.A. s.n. [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65353 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4543 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4553 [CDS], más...
[Gyrostomum scyphuliferum (Ach.) Nyl., Gyrostomum scyphuliferum var. macrosporum B. de Lesd., Gyrostomum scyphuliferum var. scyphuliferum (Ach.) Nyl., Lecidea scyphulifera Ach.]
native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2009); Aptroot, A. 63447 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6484 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9934 [CDS]
[Allographa acharii (Fée) Lücking & Kalb, Graphina acharii (Fée) Müll. Arg., Graphina acharii f. acharii (Fée) Müll. Arg., Graphina acharii var. acharii (Fée) Müll. Arg., Opegrapha acharii (Fée) Mont.]
[Opegrapha anfractuosa (Eschw.) Mont., Scaphis anfractuosa Eschw.]
[Graphina dichotoma Müll.Arg.]
native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2009); Bungartz, F. 8315 [CDS]
native, indigenous, source: Kirk (2013); Moncada, B. 8467 [CDS]
native, indigenous, source: Kirk (2013); Bungartz, F. 10250 [CDS]
[Graphis rigidula Müll.Arg.]
native, indigenous, source: Kirk (2013); Bungartz, F. 10527 [CDS]
[Allographa longula (Kremp.) Lücking & Kalb, Phaeographis longula (Kremp.) Zahlbr.]
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype Bungartz 5701 (CDS 28799), source: Bungartz et al. (2009); Aptroot, A. 65665 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65686 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4701 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4801 A [CDS]
native, indigenous, source: Kirk (2013); Spielmann, A.A. 10607 [CDS]
native, indigenous, source: Kirk (2010); Bungartz, F. 8497 [CDS]
native, indigenous, In Weber (1993) as Phaeographina chrysocarpa, source: Bungartz et al. (2009), Weber (1993); Bungartz, F. 5798 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5812 [CDS]
native, indigenous, source: Kirk (2013); Rivas Plata, E. 4034 [CDS]
[Allographa xanthospora (Müll. Arg.) Lücking & Kalb]
native, indigenous, source: Kirk (2013); Dal-Forno, M. 1163 [CDS]
[Ectolechia filicina (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Sporopodium filicinum (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Sporopodium filicinum var. filicinum (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Sporopodium filicinum var. leioplacum Zahlbr.]
native, indigenous, source: Kirk (2013)
[Lecanora persoonii Fée]
native, indigenous, In Weber (1966, 1986) and Elix & McCarthy (1998) as Haematomma puniceum, fide A. Aptroot (pers. comm.), source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1966, 1986); Bungartz, F. 3861 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63252 [CDS], Simbaña, W. 540 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6185 [CDS], más...
[Anema dodgei Herre, Solorina despreauxii Mont., Solorinaria despreauxii Mont.]
[Byssus sanguinea Sw., Chiodecton rubrocinctum (Ehrenb.) Nyl., Chiodecton sanguineum (Sw.) Vain., Chiodecton sanguineum f. rosaceotinctum (Fr.) Vain., Chiodecton sanguineum f. roseocincta (Fr.) Vain., Chiodecton sanguineum f. sanguineum (Sw.) Vain., Chiodecton sanguineum var. lutescens Vain., Chiodecton sanguineum var. sanguineum (Sw.) Vain., Corticium rubrocinctum (Ehrenb.) Bres., Cryptothecia rubrocincta (Ehrenb.:Fr.) Thor, Herpothallon sanguineum (Sw.) Tobler, Herpothallon sanguineum f. roseocinctum (Fr.) Tomas., Herpothallon sanguineum f. sanguineum (Sw.) Tobler, Hypochnus rubrocinctus Ehrenb., Hypochnus sanguineus (Sw.) Kuntze, Thelephora sanguinea Sw.]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Herpothallon sanguineum, Chiodecton sanguineum and C. rubrocinctum, fide Aptroot et al. (2009), source: Bungartz et al. (2013b), Aptroot & et al. (2009), Dodge (1935, 1936), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Farlow (1902), LeDee (2000), Stewart (1912), Weber (1966, 1986); Bungartz, F. 6891 [CDS], Herrera-Campos, M.A. GAL-477 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8636 [CDS], Nugra, F. 606 [CDS], más...
[Acolium leucampyx (Tuck.) Tuck., Acolium leucampyx var. leucampyx (Tuck.) Tuck., Acolium leucampyx var. minor B. de Lesd., Cyphelium leucampyx (Tuck.) Zahlbr., Cyphelium leucampyx var. leucampyx (Tuck.) Zahlbr., Cyphelium leucampyx var. minor (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr., Trachylia leucampyx Tuck., Tylophoron triloculare Müll.Arg.]
[Anaptychia appalachensis Kurok., Leucodermia appalachensis (Kurok.) Kalb]
[Anaptychia leucomelaena f. circinalis Zahlbr., Anaptychia leucomelos f. circinalis Zahlbr., Anaptychia neoleucomelaena f. circinalis (Zahlbr.) Kurok., Heterodermia boryi f. circinalis (Zahlbr.) J.C. Wei, Heterodermia neoleucomelaena f. circinalis (Zahlbr.) Follmann & Redón, Leucodermia circinalis (Zahlbr.) Kalb]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Anaptychia leucomelaena f. circinalis, Anaptychia circinalis, source: Weber (1981); Bungartz, F. 4296 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65123 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65507 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5801 [CDS], más...
[Anaptychia comosa (Eschw.) Trevis., Anaptychia comosa var. comosa (Eschw.) A. Massal., Anaptychia comosa var. plana Sambo, Parmelia comosa Eschw., Physcia comosa Nyl.]
[Anaptychia corallophora (Taylor) Lynge, Parmelia corallophora Taylor]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Anaptychia coralliphora [corallophora] Taylor; F. Bungartz & K. Kalb: the spelling "corallophora" is an orthographical error that needs to be corrected to "corallifera"., source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986)
[Anaptychia diademata (Taylor) Kurok., Anaptychia diademata f. angustata (Räsänen) Kurok., Anaptychia diademata f. brachyloba (Müll. Arg.) Kurok., Anaptychia diademata f. condensata (Kurok.) Kurok., Anaptychia diademata f. diademata (Taylor) Kurok., Anaptychia major (Nyl.) Vain., Anaptychia speciosa var. major (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Heterodermia major (Nyl.) Trevis., Parmelia diademata Taylor, Physcia major Nyl., Physcia speciosa var. major (Nyl.) Müll.Arg.]
[Anaptychia dendritica var. japonica M. Sat, Anaptychia dendritica var. propagulifera Vain., Anaptychia hypoleuca var. sorediifera (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Anaptychia japonica (M. Satô) Kurok., Anaptychia japonica var. japonica (M. Satô) Kurok., Anaptychia japonica var. reagens Kurok., Anaptychia propagulifera (Vain.) Ozenda & Clauzade, Anaptychia speciosa f. sorediifera (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Anaptychia subheterochroa var. propagulifera (Vain.) Kurok., Heterodermia dendritica var. propagulifera (Vain.) Poelt, Heterodermia japonica var. japonica (M. Satô) Swinscow & Krog, Physcia speciosa f. sorediifera Müll.Arg., Polyblastidium japonicum (M. Satô) Kalb, Pseudophyscia speciosa var. hypoleuca]
Nugra, F. 258 [CDS], Nugra, F. 245 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63143 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63792 [CDS], más...
[Anaptychia 'leucomelaena' (L.) Vain., Anaptychia leucomelos (L.) A. Massal., Anaptychia leucomelos var. leucomelos (L.) A. Massal., Borrera leucomelos (L.) Ach., Hagenia leucomelos (L.) Schwend., Heterodermia leucomela subsp. leucomela, Heterodermia leucomelaena (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelos (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelos f. leucomelos (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelos subsp. leucomelos (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelos var. leucomelos (L.) Poelt, Leucodermia leucomelos (L.) Kalb, Lichen leucomelos L., Lobaria leucomelos (L.) Raeusch., Parmelia leucomelos (L.) Ach., Parmelia leucomelos var. leucomelos (L.) Ach., Parmelia speciosa var. leucomelos (L.) Eschw., Physcia leucomelos (L.) Michx., Physcia leucomelos f. leucomelos (L.) Michx., Physcia leucomelos var. leucomelos (L.) Michx., Physcia speciosa var. leucomelos (L.) Tuck., Teloschistes leucomelos (L.) A. Schneid., Xanthoria leucomelos (L.) Horw.]
[Anaptychia 'leucomelaena' (L.) Vain., Anaptychia leucomelos (L.) A. Massal., Anaptychia leucomelos var. leucomelos (L.) A. Massal., Borrera leucomelos (L.) Ach., Hagenia leucomelos (L.) Schwend., Heterodermia leucomela (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomela subsp. leucomela, Heterodermia leucomelaena (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelos f. leucomelos (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelos subsp. leucomelos (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelos var. leucomelos (L.) Poelt, Leucodermia leucomelos (L.) Kalb, Lichen leucomelos L., Lobaria leucomelos (L.) Raeusch., Parmelia leucomelos (L.) Ach., Parmelia leucomelos var. leucomelos (L.) Ach., Parmelia speciosa var. leucomelos (L.) Eschw., Physcia leucomelos (L.) Michx., Physcia leucomelos f. leucomelos (L.) Michx., Physcia leucomelos var. leucomelos (L.) Michx., Physcia speciosa var. leucomelos (L.) Tuck., Teloschistes leucomelos (L.) A. Schneid., Xanthoria leucomelos (L.) Horw.]
[Anaptychia 'leucomelaena' (L.) Vain., Anaptychia leucomelos (L.) A. Massal., Anaptychia leucomelos var. leucomelos (L.) A. Massal., Borrera leucomelos (L.) Ach., Hagenia leucomelos (L.) Schwend., Heterodermia leucomela (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelaena (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelos (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelos f. leucomelos (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelos subsp. leucomelos (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelos var. leucomelos (L.) Poelt, Leucodermia leucomelos (L.) Kalb, Lichen leucomelos L., Lobaria leucomelos (L.) Raeusch., Parmelia leucomelos (L.) Ach., Parmelia leucomelos var. leucomelos (L.) Ach., Parmelia speciosa var. leucomelos (L.) Eschw., Physcia leucomelos (L.) Michx., Physcia leucomelos f. leucomelos (L.) Michx., Physcia leucomelos var. leucomelos (L.) Michx., Physcia speciosa var. leucomelos (L.) Tuck., Teloschistes leucomelos (L.) A. Schneid., Xanthoria leucomelos (L.) Horw.]
[Anaptychia boryi (Fée) Mass., Anaptychia boryi var. boryi (Fée) A. Massal., Anaptychia neoleucomelaena Kurok., Anaptychia neoleucomelaena f. neoleucomelaena Kurok., Anaptychia neoleucomelaena f. sorediosa (Jatta) Kurok., Anaptychia neoleucomelaena f. squarrosa (Vain.) Kurok., Anaptychia neoleucomelaena var. neoleucomelaena Kurok., Anaptychia neoleucomelaena var. squarrosa (Vain.) Kurok., Heterodermia boryi (Fée) Kr.P. Singh & S.R. Singh, Heterodermia boryi f. boryi (Fée) Kr.P. Singh & S.R. Singh, Leucodermia boryi (Fée) Kalb]
[Anaptychia heterochroa Vain., Anaptychia hypoleuca var. colorata Zahlbr., Anaptychia obscurata (Nyl.) Vain., Anaptychia obscurata var. obscurata (Nyl.) Vain., Anaptychia obscurata var. serpens Vain., Anaptychia sorediifera (Müll. Arg.) Du Rietz & Lynge, Anaptychia sorediifera var. colorata (Zahlbr.) Nádv., Anaptychia sorediifera var. sorediifera (Müll. Arg.) Du Rietz & Lynge, Heppia obscuratula Nyl., Peltula obscuratula (Nyl.) Poelt ex Egea, Physcia obscurata Nyl.]
[Anaptychia pseudospeciosa Kurok., Anaptychia pseudospeciosa f. pseudospeciosa Kurok., Anaptychia pseudospeciosa f. tagawae Kurok., Anaptychia pseudospeciosa var. inactiva Kurok., Anaptychia pseudospeciosa var. pseudospeciosa Kurok.]
[Alectoria speciosa (Wulfen) A. Massal., Anaptychia pseudospeciosa var. tremulans (Müll. Arg.) Kurok., Anaptychia speciosa (Wulfen) A. Massal., Anaptychia speciosa f. brachyloba (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Anaptychia speciosa f. cinerascens (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Anaptychia speciosa f. cubana B. de Lesd., Anaptychia speciosa f. foliolosa C. Moreau & M. Moreau, Anaptychia speciosa f. isidiophora (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Anaptychia speciosa f. isidiosa (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Anaptychia speciosa f. sorediosa (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Anaptychia speciosa f. spathulata Vain., Anaptychia speciosa f. speciosa (Wulfen) A. Massal., Anaptychia speciosa f. subimbricata (Räsänen) M. Satô, Anaptychia speciosa var. angustiloba (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Anaptychia speciosa var. esorediata Vain., Anaptychia speciosa var. lineariloba Müll.Arg., Anaptychia speciosa var. lobulifera Vain., Anaptychia speciosa var. mexicana B. de Lesd., Anaptychia speciosa var. microspora Kurok., Anaptychia speciosa var. speciosa (Wulfen) A. Massal., Anaptychia speciosa var. stellata Tuck., Borrera speciosa (Wulfen) Mudd, Dimelaena speciosa (Wulfen) Norman, Hagenia speciosa (Wulfen) De Not., Heterodermia pseudospeciosa var. tremulans (Müll. Arg.) Kurok., Imbricaria speciosa (Wulfen) DC., Lichen speciosus Wulfen, Lobaria speciosa (Wulfen) Hoffm., Parmelia speciosa (Wulfen) Ach., Parmelia speciosa f. fagorum Britzelm., Parmelia speciosa f. speciosa (Wulfen) Ach., Physcia speciosa (Wulfen) Nyl., Physcia speciosa f. brachyloba Müll.Arg., Physcia speciosa f. cinerascens Nyl., Physcia speciosa f. coralligera Müll.Arg., Physcia speciosa f. isidiophora Nyl., Physcia speciosa f. pulvinigera Müll.Arg., Physcia speciosa f. sorediosa Müll.Arg., Physcia speciosa f. speciosa (Wulfen) Nyl., Physcia speciosa f. subgranulosa Tuck., Physcia speciosa var. angustiloba Müll.Arg., Physcia speciosa var. dactyliza Nyl., Physcia speciosa var. speciosa (Wulfen) Nyl., Pseudophyscia speciosa (Wulfen) Müll. Arg., Pseudophyscia speciosa var. speciosa (Wulfen) Müll. Arg., Squamaria speciosa (Wulfen) Frege, Xanthoria speciosa (Wulfen) Horw., Xanthoria speciosa var. hypoleuca (Muhl.) Horw., Xanthoria speciosa var. speciosa (Wulfen) Horw.]
[Dimelaena adglutinata (Flörke) Trevis., Hagenia adglutinata (Flörke) Bagl. & Carestia, Hagenia elaeina (Sm.) Bagl., Hyperphyscia adglutinata var. adglutinata (Flörke) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt, Imbricaria adglutinata (Flörke) Chevall., Parmelia adglutinata (Flörke) Flörke, Parmelia obscura var. adglutinata (Flörke) Schaer., Physcia adglutinata (Flörke) Nyl., Physcia adglutinata f. adglutinata (Flörke) Nyl., Physcia adglutinata f. sorediata Nyl., Physcia adglutinata subsp. adglutinata (Flörke) Nyl., Physcia adglutinata subsp. syncolla Nyl., Physcia adglutinata var. adglutinata (Flörke) Nyl., Physcia adglutinata var. lepraeformis (Flörke) Zahlbr., Physcia adglutinata var. pyrithrocardia Müll.Arg., Physcia elaeina (Sm.) A.L. Sm., Physcia elaeina f. albida B. de Lesd., Physcia elaeina f. elaeina (Sm.) A.L. Sm., Physcia elaeina f. pyrithrocardia (Müll. Arg.) J.W. Thomson, Physcia elaeina f. tenuissima Nádv., Physcia elaeina var. elaeina (Sm.) A.L. Sm., Physcia elaeina var. subvirella Nyl., Physciopsis adglutinata (Flörke) M. Choisy, Physciopsis elaeina (Sm.) Poelt, Physciopsis elaeina var. elaeina (Sm.) Poelt, Physciopsis elaeina var. pyrithrocardia (Müll. Arg.) D.D. Awasthi & Kr.P. Singh, Squamaria elaeina (Sm.) Hook., Xanthoria adglutinata (Flörke) Horw., Xanthoria adglutinata f. adglutinata (Flörke) Horw., Xanthoria adglutinata f. sorediata (Nyl.) Horw.]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Physcia adglutinata, fide Elix & McCarthy (1998); In Weber (1986) as Phaeophyscia hispidula, fide A. Aptroot (pers. comm.), source: Dodge (1936), Weber (1966); Weber, W.A. 49 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6977 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9690 [CDS]
[Canoparmelia cassa Marcelli & C.H. Ribeiro, Hypotrachyna congenita Kurok. & K.H. Moon, Parmelia amoena Zahlbr., Parmelia costaricensis Nyl., Parmelia deformis (Vain.) Vain., Parmelia hypotrachyna Nyl., Parmelia sublaevigata f. isidiosa Müll. Arg., Parmelia tropica Vain., Parmelia tropica var. deformis Vain., Parmelinella inexplicabilis Marcelli & C.H. Ribeiro, Remototrachyna costaricensis (Nyl.) Divakar & A. Crespo]
native, indigenous, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986); Aptroot, A. 65318 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63172 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63790 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64506 [CDS]
[Hypotrachyna angustissima Marcelli & C.H. Ribeiro, Parmelia endorubra f. imbricatiformis Gyeln., Parmelia jamaicensis (Ach.) Spreng., Parmelia jamaicensis Vain. nom. illegit., Parmelia neopropagulifera Gyeln., Parmelia norstictica Hale, Parmelia propagulifera Vain., Parmelia pseudorevoluta Gyeln., Parmelia revoluta f. isidiosa Müll. Arg., Parmelia stenophylloides var. propagulifera Vain.]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Parmelia microblasta, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Sipman & et al. (2009), Weber (1986); Weber, W.A. s.n. [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63158 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63188 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64848 [CDS], más...
[Parmelia dissecta Nyl., Parmelia hubrichtii E.C. Berry, Parmelia minarum Vain., Parmelina dissecta (Nyl.) Hale, Parmelina minarum (Vain.) Skorepa, Parmelinopsis minarum (Vain.) Elix & Hale]
[Aspicilia leucophyma (Leight.) Hue, Aspicilia leucophyma var. leucophyma (Leight.) Hue, Aspicilia leucophyma var. littoralis (Vain.) Räsänen, Lecanora leucophyma Leight., Lecanora wimmeriana (Körb.) Poetsch, Zeora wimmeriana Körb.]
[Lecanactis subattingens (Nyl.) R.C. Harris, Platygrapha subattingens Nyl., Schismatomma subattingens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.]
[Opegrapha brattiae Egea & Ertz]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Opegrapha brattiae Ertz & Tehler, source: Ertz & Tehler (2010); Ertz, D. 11608 [CDS], Clerc, P. 08-270 A [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64983 [CDS]
[Lecanactis nashii Egea & Torrente, Opegrapha hassei Zahlbr., Opegrapha hypothallina (Zahlbr.) Tehler, Platygrapha hypothallina Zahlbr., Schismatomma hypothallinum (Zahlbr.) Hasse]
native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. 2020
[Lecidea chilena Zahlbr.]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Lecidea chilena, fide Elix & McCarthy (1998), source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986), Bungartz et al. (2020); Bungartz, F. 6312 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6411 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 10228 [CDS]
[Lecanora australiensis Zahlbr., Lecanora cancriformis (Hoffm.) Vain., Lecanora glaucomodes Nyl., Lecanora glaucomodes var. albopruinosa (Stirt.) Zahlbr., Lecanora glaucomodes var. densa H. Magn., Lecanora glaucomodes var. glaucomodes Nyl., Lecanora leucoma Nyl., Lecanora pallida var. caesiorubella (Ach.) H. Magn., Lecanora pulverata Stirt., Parmelia caesiorubella (Ach.) Fr., Patellaria caesiorubella (Ach.) Trevis., Verrucaria cancriformis Hoffm.]
endemic to Galapagos, source: Bungartz et al. (2020)
[Aspicilia oreinoides Körb., Carbonea oreinoides (Körb.) Brusse, Lecidea angolensis Müll.Arg., Lecidea angolensis var. angolensis Müll.Arg., Lecidea angolensis var. orientalis J. Steiner, Lecidea angolensis var. riograndensis Malme, Lecidea angolensis var. vegetior Zahlbr., Lecidea lactea f. oreinoides (Körb.) Nyl., Lecidea mundula Müll.Arg., Lecidea oreinoides (Körb.) Hochst, Lecidea pantherina f. oreinoides (Körb.) Zahlbr., Lecidea tennessensis Nyl.]
endemic to Galapagos, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1981, 1986); Weber, W.A. s.n. [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63101 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63423 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63263 [CDS], más...
native, indigenous, F. Bungartz: Both chemotypes occur in Galapagos (previously only L. subimmersa ssp. subimmersa reported by Guderley 1999), source: Guderley (1999); Bungartz, F. 5229 [CDS], Nugra, F. 558 [CDS]
native, indigenous, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Guderley (1999), Weber (1986); Aptroot, A. 63093 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63709 [CDS]
[Lecidea alienata Nyl., Lecidea asema Nyl., Lecidea catalinaria Stizenb., Lecidea effugiens Nilson, Lecidea elaeochromoides (Nyl.) Flagey, Lecidea parasema var. elaeochromoides Nyl., Lecidea polyantha Taylor ex Leight., Lecidea subincongrua Nyl., Lecidea subincongrua f. elaeochromoides (Nyl.) H. Magn., Lecidea subincongrua f. subincongrua Nyl., Lecidea subincongrua var. elaeochromoides (Nyl.) Poelt, Lecidea subincongrua var. subincongrua Nyl., Lecidea vulgata f. effugiens (Nilson) Zahlbr., Lecidella asema var. elaeochromoides (Nyl.) Nimis & Tretiach, Lecidella elaeochromoides (Nyl.) Knoph & Hertel, Lecidella polyantha Taylor ex Leight., Lecidella subincongrua var. elaeochromoides (Nyl.) Hertel & Leuckert, Lithographa larbalestieri Leight.]
[Lecidea enterochlora Taylor, Lecidea parasema var. prasinula Wedd., Lecidea prasinula (Wedd.) B. de Lesd., Lecidea prasinula f. major B. de Lesd., Lecidea prasinula f. prasinula (Wedd.) B. de Lesd., Lecidea scabra Taylor, Lecidea scabra f. scabra Taylor, Lecidella prasinula (Wedd.) Hertel 1980]
native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2013c); Ertz, D. 11579 [CDS]
[Crocynia aliciae Hue, Crocynia americana B. de Lesd., Crocynia andrewii B. de Lesd., Crocynia finkii B. de Lesd., Crocynia mollissima B. de Lesd., Lepraria lobificans Nyl., Leproloma lobificans (Nyl.) Boistel]
[Byssus incana L., Crocynia tephra Hue, Lecidea incana (L.) Ach., Lepra incana (L.) F.H. Wigg., Lepraria aeruginosa (Weiss) Sm., Patellaria incana (L.) Spreng., Pulveraria incana (L.) Flörke, Verrucaria incana (L.) P. Gaertn., G. Mey. & Scherb.]
source: Bungartz et al. (2013c); Bungartz, F. 3934 [CDS]
[Leprocaulon tenellum Tuck., Stereocaulon tenellum Tuck.]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Stereocaulon tenellum Tuck., Leprocaulon tenellum (Tuck.) Nyl., F. Bungartz: erroneoulsy listed as Stereocaulon albicans by Elix & McCarthy (1998); as "Lepraria tenellum" by Lendemer & Hodkinson (2013), erroneous use of gener for the the species' epithet according to Art. 23.5 Melbourne Code,, source: Bungartz et al. (2013c), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Lendemer & Hodkinson (2013), Weber (1981, 1986); Aptroot, A. 65051 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9368 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9376 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9510 [CDS], más...
[Crocynia vouauxii Hue, Leproloma vouauxii (Hue) J. R. Laundon]
[Callopisma chrysodetum (Vain.) Räsänen, Caloplaca chrysodeta (Vain. ex Räsänen) Dombr., Placodium chrysodetum Vain. ex Räsänen]
[Collema cyanescens (Pers.) Rabenh., Leptogium tremelloides (L.) S. Gray, Leptogium tremelloides f. crispum Asahina, Leptogium tremelloides f. isidiigera Müll.Arg., Leptogium tremelloides f. isidiosa Müll.Arg., Leptogium tremelloides f. laciniatum Tuck., Leptogium tremelloides f. leptophyllina Meyen & Flot., Leptogium tremelloides f. lobuligera Müll.Arg., Leptogium tremelloides f. tremelloides (L. f.) Gray, Leptogium tremelloides subsp. tremelloides (L. f.) Gray, Leptogium tremelloides var. azureum Nyl., Leptogium tremelloides var. foliolosa C.W. Dodge, Leptogium tremelloides var. isidiosum (Müll. Arg.) F. Wilson, Leptogium tremelloides var. lophaea (Ach.) Vain., Leptogium tremelloides var. macrophyllum Tuck., Leptogium tremelloides var. mesotomum Stirt., Leptogium tremelloides var. myriophyllinum Müll.Arg., Leptogium tremelloides var. tremelloides (L. f.) Gray, Lichen cyanescens Pers., Parmelia cyanescens (Pers.) Ach., Verrucaria cyanescens (Pers.) Hoffm.]
native, indigenous, source: Bungartz (2008), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Miquel & Bungartz (2017), Weber (1981), Weber (1986); Weber, W.A. s.n. [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63149 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63156 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63309 [CDS], más...
[Collema marginellum (Sw.) Raeusch., Lichen marginellus Sw., Parmelia marginella (Sw.) Ach.]
native, indigenous, source: Bungartz (2008) Dodge (1936) Elix & McCarthy (1998) LeDee (2000) Weber (1966, 1986); Weber, W.A. s.n. [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63334 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3928 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64505 [CDS], más...
[Endocarpon baileyi Stirt., Endocarpon wightii Taylor, Leptotrema baileyi (Stirt.) Shirley, Leptotrema wightii f. wightii (Taylor) Müll. Arg., Leptotrema wightii var. wightii (Taylor) Müll. Arg., Myriotrema wightii (Taylor) Hale, Phaeotrema wightii (Taylor) Zahlbr., Sanguinotrema wightii (Taylor) Lücking, Thelotrema ravenelii Tuck., Thelotrema wightii (Taylor) Nyl.]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Myriotrema wightii, fide F. Bungartz, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986)
[Leptotrema compunctum (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Leptotrema compunctum f. compunctum (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Leptotrema compunctum f. portoricense (Vain.) Zahlbr., Leptotrema compunctum var. antillarum (Vain.) Zahlbr., Leptotrema compunctum var. compunctum (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Leptotrema compunctum var. persicinum Müll.Arg., Leptotrema compunctum var. praiense (Vain.) Zahlbr., Leptotrema compunctum var. purpuratum Müll.Arg., Leptotrema occultum (Eschw.) Hale, Lichen compunctus Sm., Myriotrema compunctum (Ach.) Hale, Myriotrema occultum (Eschw.) Hale, Thelotrema compunctum (Sm.) Nyl., Thelotrema compunctum f. compunctum (Sm.) Nyl., Thelotrema compunctum f. portoricense Vain., Thelotrema compunctum var. antillarum Vain., Thelotrema compunctum var. compunctum (Sm.) Nyl., Thelotrema compunctum var. praiense Vain., Thelotrema compunctum var. purpuratum (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Thelotrema occultum Eschw., Tremotyliomyces occulti Cif. & Tomas., Urceolaria compuncta (Sm. ex Ach.) Ach.]
[Diploschistes diffractus (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Diploschistes diffractus f. diffractus (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Diploschistes diffractus f. saxicola (Kremp.) Zahlbr., Leptotrema diffractum Müll.Arg., Leptotrema polycarpum Müll. Arg., Leptotrema subcompunctum (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Myriotrema subcompunctum (Nyl.) Hale, Thelotrema subcompunctum Nyl.]
[Plagiocarpa illota (Nyl.) R.C. Harris, Plagiocarpa langloissi R.C. Harris 1980, Pseudopyrenula illota (Nyl.) Vain.]
native, indigenous, F. Bungartz & R. Miranda: Galapagos material of this species erroneously referred to as L. obtectum by Aptroot (2006)., source: Aptroot (2006); Bungartz, F. 3690 [CDS]
[Durietzia exornata (Zahlbr.) Yoshim., Lobaria crenulata var. exornata Zahlbr., Lobaria exornata (Zahlbr.) Yoshim., Lobaria exornata var. corallophora Yoshim., Lobaria exornata var. exornata (Zahlbr.) Yoshim.]
native, indigenous, source: Kirk (2013); López, A. 202 [CDS]
[Biatorina pulverea (Borrer) Mudd, Catillaria pulverea (Borrer) Lettau, Catillochroma pulverea (Borrer) Kalb, Catinaria pulverea (Borrer) Vezda & Poelt, Lecidea pulverea Borrer, Patellaria pulverea (Borrer) Müll. Arg.]
native, indigenous, Sy.: Catinaria pulverea (Borrer) Vězda & Poelt, Catillochroma pulverea (Borr.) Kalb, source: Bungartz et al. (2013c); Bungartz, F. 3964 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64683 [CDS]
endemic to Galapagos, Type:—ECUADOR. Galápagos: Isla Sán Cristóbal, trail from Cerro Pelado to El Ripioso, 0°52’S, 89°28’W, 392 m, transition zone, Psidium guajava forest with some old Hippomane mancinella trees and dense understory of Rubus niveus, Tournefortia rufosericea and Zanthoxylum fagara, on bark, S-exposed side of inclined Hippomane mancinella trunk (ca. 20 cm in diameter), semi-shaded, wind- and rain-sheltered, August 2008, Bungartz 8516 (holotype CDS-41162, isotype F)., source: Lumbsch et al. (2010); Truong, C. 1509 [CDS], Herrera-Campos, M.A. 10918 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3987 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8516 [CDS], más...
[Buellia arthonioides (Fée) Arnold, Catillaria arthonioides (Fée) A. Massal., Melaspilea arthonioides (Fée) Nyl., Poetschia arthonioides (Fée) Stein]
[Arthonia proximella Nyl., Buellia proximella (Nyl.) Rabenh., Catillaria proximella (Nyl.) Th. Fr., Celidium proximellum (Nyl.) P. Karst., Celidium proximellum var. proximellum (Nyl.) P. Karst., Celidium proximellum var. uralense Naumov, Coniangium proximellum (Nyl.) Hellb., Melaspilea proximella (Nyl.) Nyl. ex Norrlin]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Etayo (2017); Aptroot, A. 63726 B [CDS]
[Bogoriella subfallens (Müll. Arg.) Aptroot & Lücking, Didymosphaeria baccharidis Starbäck, Didymosphaeria coccifera var. cinereorubricosa Vain., Microthelia subfallens Müll.Arg., Verrucaria subfallens Nyl.]
native, indigenous, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1993)
[Bogoriella thelena (Ach.) Aptroot & Lücking, Didymosphaeria palaquii Vain., Microthelia albidella Müll.Arg., Microthelia leucothallina Vain., Microthelia thelena (Ach.) Trev., Verrucaria thelena Ach.]
native, indigenous, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998) Weber (1993)
[Arthothelium lichenale (Peck) M.E. Barr, Bottaria composita A. Massal., Dermatina pyrenocarpa (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Mycoporum pycnocarpum Nyl., Mycoporum pycnocarpum var. ohiense Nyl., Mycoporum pycnocarpum var. pycnocarpum Nyl., Pyrenastrum compositum Hepp]
[Mycoporellum hassei Zahlbr., Porina bonplandii Müll.Arg., Tomasellia lactea (Ach. ex Fée) R.C. Harris]
[Mycoporellum sparsellum (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Tomasellia sparsella (Nyl.) R.C. Harris]
native, indigenous, F. Bungarz: one specimen det. Hale as Myriotrema olivaceum Fée (Santiago, on Zanthoxylum, coll. Pike ID18-19, (OSC 101980) has been revised by R. Lücking to belong to M. myrioporum., source: Kirk (2013)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Etayo (2017)
[Bathelium compositum (Vain.) C.W. Dodge, Pseudopyrenula bicincta Zahlbr., Pseudopyrenula composita Vain., Pseudopyrenula deightonii C.W. Dodge, Pseudopyrenula pyrenuloides Zahlbr., Pseudopyrenula tropica (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Pseudopyrenula verrucosa Vain., Pyrenula gaudichaudii (Fée) Pers., Pyrenula tropica (Ach.) Trevis., Sagedia tropica (Ach.) A. Massal., Spermatodium tropicum (Ach.) Trevis., Trypethelium compositum (Vain.) Zahlbr., Trypethelium tropicum (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Trypethelium tropicum var. nigratum Müll.Arg., Trypethelium tropicum var. tropicum (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Verrucaria gaudichaudii Fée, Verrucaria tropica Ach., Zignoella magnoliae Tracy & Earle, Zignoëlla magnoliae var. brasiliensis Rehm, Zignoella nobilis Rehm]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Trypethelium tropicum., source: Aptroot et al. (2016), Elix & McCarthy (1998), LeDee (2000), Weber (1986); Weber, W.A. 7 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63105 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3362 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3354 [CDS], más...
[Endocarpon pulchellum Borrer, Lauderlindsaya borreri (Leighton) R. Sant., Lenormandia jungermanniae Nyl., Lenormandia pulchella (Borrer) A. Massal., Normandina jungermanniae (Nyl.) Nyl., Normandina jungermanniae var. jungermanniae (Nyl.) Nyl., Normandina jungermanniae var. sorediosa H. Olivier, Polyblastia armericola Walt. Watson, Sphaeria borreri Tul., Verrucaria pulchella Borrer]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens), source: Etayo (2017)
[Opegrapha betulina Pers., Opegrapha betulina var. betulina Pers., Opegrapha betulina var. conferta Erichsen, Opegrapha betulina var. herbarum (Mont.) Redinger, Opegrapha culmigena Lib., Opegrapha prosodeoides Vain., Opegrapha turneri Leight.]
[Opegrapha cinerea Chevall., Opegrapha cinerea f. cinerea Chevall., Opegrapha cinerea f. intermedia B. de Lesd., Opegrapha cinerea f. macrospora Erichsen, Opegrapha cinerea f. olivaceonigra B. de Lesd.]
[Parmelia aberrans (Vain.) Abbayes, Parmelia caperata var. madagascariacea Hue, Parmelia nyasensis C.W. Dodge, Parmelia proboscidea var. xanthina Müll. Arg., Parmotrema madagascariaceum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema nyasense (C.W. Dodge) R.S. Egan nom. illegit., Parmotrema xanthinum (Müll. Arg.) Hale]
native, questionably endem., source: Bungartz & Spielmann (2019)
[Parmelia conformata Vain.]
native, indigenous, source: Bungartz & Spielmann (2019), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986); Aptroot, A. 64963 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3914 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4338 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64572 [CDS], más...
[Imbricaria crinita (Ach.) Arnold, Imbricaria proboscidea (Taylor) Jatta, Parmelia chlorocarpa Müll. Arg., Parmelia crinita Ach., Parmelia crinita var. crinita Ach., Parmelia crinita var. inactiva H. Magn., Parmelia perlata f. dissectula Nyl., Parmelia proboscidea Taylor, Parmelia proboscidea f. bulbifera Hue, Parmelia proboscidea f. proboscidea Taylor, Parmelia proboscidea f. sorediifera (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg., Parmelia proboscidea var. corallina Müll.Arg., Parmelia proboscidea var. eciliata J.D. Zhao, Parmelia proboscidea var. ornatula Zahlbr., Parmelia proboscidea var. proboscidea Taylor, Parmelia proboscidea var. saxicola Sambo, Parmelia proboscidea var. sorediifera Müll.Arg.]
[Parmelia cristifera Taylor, Parmelia cristifera f. cinerata Zahlbr., Parmelia cristifera f. cristifera Taylor, Parmelia cristifera f. pallida Räsänen, Parmelia cristifera var. abissinica Sambo, Parmelia cristifera var. cristifera Taylor, Parmelia perforata var. ulophylla Meyen & Flot.]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Parmelia cristifera, fide Elix & McCarthy (1998), source: Dodge (1936), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1966, 1986); Bungartz, F. 3953 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3528 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3471 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4262 [CDS], más...
[Parmelia dominicana Vain.]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Parmelia dominicana, fide Elix & McCarthy (1998), source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1981, 1986); Bungartz, F. 7886 [CDS], Weber, W.A. s.n. [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63051 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63312 [CDS], más...
[Parmelia eborina Hale]
native, indigenous, no description found, keys out in Sipman’s key sensu Hale, also annot. specimens from Hale in COLO loan(L-40237,L-40505);without apothecia,isidia,soredia,± lobulate(i.e., broader lobes with smaller marginal lobes),medulla P+ red,K+ yellow turning orange, C-, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986); Luong, T.T. s.n. [CDS]
[Parmelia endosulphurea (Hillmann) Hale, Parmelia tinctorum var. endosulphurea Hillmann]
native, indigenous, Syn.: Parmelia endosulphurea, fide Elix & McCarthy (1998), source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986); Aptroot, A. 64319 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64067 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65447 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4938 [CDS], más...
[Parmelia hypotropa Nyl.]
source: Bungartz & Spielmann (2019)
[Parmelia internexa Nyl.]
native, indigenous, source: Miquel & Bungartz (2017); Aptroot, A. 65545 [CDS]
[Parmelia aberrans (Vain.) Abbayes, Parmelia caperata var. madagascariacea Hue, Parmelia nyasensis C.W. Dodge, Parmelia proboscidea var. xanthina Müll. Arg., Parmotrema aberrans (Vain.) des Abbayes, Parmotrema madagascariaceum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema xanthinum (Müll. Arg.) Hale]
source: Bungartz & Spielmann (2019)