Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: foliose, 1-5 cm in diam., closely adnate, rigid, forming rosettes, irregularly lobate lobes: quite variable, flabellate, elongate, flattened to subterete, separate, 0.5-2(-3) mm wide, 150-250 µm thick, with an ascending margin; apices: rotund, entire to irregularly divided, often upturned upper surface: dark brownish black, often with a reddish tinge, usually dull, nearly granular to distinctly and irregularly wrinkled or ridged, not isidiate but with isidia-like warts internal anatomy: poorly differentiated, with upper and lower cortices consisting of a single layer of irregularly isodiametrical cells 3-5 µm in diam., internally with loosely interwoven chains of Nostoc and hyphae lower surface: brown, wrinkled, with scattered tufts of white hairs Apothecia: common, laminal to marginal, sessile, 0.5-1.5 mm wide disc: brown, concave margin: thalline, concolorous with the thallus, entire exciple: euparaplectenchymatous, 55-90 µm thick centrally hymenium: hyaline below and thinly brown above, 135-160 µm tall; paraphyses: unbranched, c. 1 µm wide, slightly inflated apically; subhymenium: yellow, 50-60 µm thick asci: cylindrico-clavate, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, muriform, 3-septate transversely, 1-septate longitudinally, ellipsoid to subfusiform, (18-)20-24(-30) x (7-)8-16 µm Pycnidia: not observed Spot tests: all negative Secondary metabolites: none detected. Substrate and ecology: usually on moist, calcareous and less commonly on acidic rocks, rarely on soil World distribution: throughout Europe and North America, rarely in Australasia (New Zealand) Sonoran distribution: Arizona and southern California in the Santa Monica Range.