Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: crustose, mostly immersed in the substrate photobiont: primary one a trentepohlioid alga or Phycopeltis, secondary photobiont absent Ascomata: perithecial, globose, in upper part conical involucrellum: present in some species, blackish brown; true ascomatal wall: black, not continuous below the hamathecium exciple: dark or pale brown or colorless hamathecium: composed of branched pseudoparaphyses, anastomosing above the asci, amyloid asci: bitunicate, cylindrical, with tholus, non-amyloid ascospores: hyaline, ellipsoid, transversely 1-20-septate to muriform, with eusepta, 2-20 x 8-70 µm; walls: not ornamented Conidiomata: pycnidial, globose or conical, at least partially immersed conidia: hyaline, simple to transversely septate to muriform, always with gelatinous appendages, including both macro- (1 or more septate, oblong to fusiform) and microconidia (simple, ellipsoid or narrowly ellipsoid) Secondary metabolites: none detected Geography: cosmopolitans, but most diverse in the tropics Substrate: mostly foliicolous, but also on bark, calcareous or non-calcareous rocks. Notes: The species of this genus occur commonly in the tropics as epiphylls. It is separated from Anisomeridium and Arthopyrenia by the appendaged conidia, the thin, anstomosing hamathecium filaments and the often multiseptate ascospores.