Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: fruticose, erect, repeatedly branched with branch tips ecorticate, sometimes anastomosing, often with lateral ecorticate branchlets breaking through the cortex lobe surface: brown to creamy-grayish to pale gray; soredia and isidia absent cortex: with hyphae periclinally arranged, 50-80 µm thick medulla: white, byssoid or coalescent photobiont: primary one a Trentepohlia, secondary photobiont absent Ascomata: apothecioid, numerous to absent, solitary, erumpent, lateral, circular in outline, sessile with constricted base; disc: exposed, convex or rarely flat, white with a pruinose layer, smooth; thalloid exciple: whitish and formed by the disintegrating of the cortex but margin may be intact on the under side of the ascomata (algae excluded at least in the upper part); proper exciple: a thin parathecium, not well developed; epithecium: 25-60 µm thick with brownish, intertwined, richly branched paraphysoids; hymenium: 100-120 µm thick with paraphysoids that are c. 1 µm diam, hyaline and sparsely branched; hypothecium: dark-brown (carbonaceous) asci: clavate, 70-80 x 15-18 µm, 8-spored ascospores: fusiform, curved, smooth, 3-septate, hyaline Conidiomata: pycnidial, black, solitary, lateral, immersed or rarely elevated, 0.1 mm diam conidia: filiform, semicircular to almost straight, hyaline Secondary metabolites: ß-orcinol depsides, one unknown depside and one other unknown substance Geography: coastal regions with Mediterranean climates in SW North America Substrate: on bark and rock.