Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life Habit: lichenized Thallus: fruticose, occasionally reduced and more crust-like, attached by the whole lower surface or by basal holdfasts surface: grayish, ochraceous-yellowish, olivaceous, brownish, rose or white, contiguous or granular-farinose to spongiose-filamentous, with or without tomentum photobiont: primary one a chlorococcoid alga, secondary photobiont a cyanobacterium (Nostoc or Stigonema or occasionally Scytonema or Chroococcus) usually present in cephalodia on the pseudopodetia; cephalodia: mostly irregularly globose lower surface: tomentose to glabrous primary thallus: usually rudimentary and disappearing early but in some species persistent, composed of basal granular or squamule-like structures (phyllocladia) Pseudopodetia: solid, ± terete, weakly to strongly branched, fruticose in appearance, usually corticate; central axis: cartilaginous, composed of thick-walled, longitudinal hyphae secondary thallus: shrubby, erect to decumbent, composed of stalks (pseudopodetia), developing from a ± well-developed holdfast in some species, phyllocladia: or phyllocladioid branchlets: verrucose to granular, cylindrical, squamulose or foliose, containing the algae and a loosely interwoven medulla, sometimes appearing dorsiventral; with or without soredia Ascomata: apothecial, terminal or lateral, roundish, sessile or substipitate or stipitate; disc: plane to often convex, pale brown to red-brown, dark brown or black, without a thalline margin; exciple: prominent (raised) to ± soon disappearing, sometimes pale and appearing almost thalloid; hymenium: hyaline below, brown, or ochraceous-yellowish above; paraphyses: unbranched, not (or scarcely) anastomosing, apices mainly with a brown cap; hypothecium: hyaline or ochraceous-yellowish (to brown in some species) asci: clavate to cylindrical, unitunicate, tholus I+ blue; in K/I with a blue outer layer, and a blue apical dome with a ± central, darker blue tube, c. 8-spored ascospores: ellipsoid, hyaline, clavate, or fusiform to cylindrical, acicular, or vermiform, transversely 1-13 septate, (12-) 16-100 (-200) x 2-7 µm, hyaline, smooth, thin walled, without distinctly developed endospore thickening, I- Conidiomata: sometimes present, terminal or lateral, immersed in the tips of phyllocladia, ovoid to spherical, darkened around ostiole conidia: formed acrogenously, filiform to cylindrical, straight or curved, simple Secondary metabolites: orcinol and beta-orcinol depsides, orcinol and beta-orcinol depsidones and aliphatic acids Geography: arctic-alpine, boreal and montane regions of Northern and Southern Hemispheres Substrate: on soil, bryophytes, detritus, or non-calciferous, siliceous rock; in cool to cold, humid areas. Notes: The genus is not likely to be confused with any other, except perhaps Leprocaulon, which has very fine, ecorticate branches and lacks ascomata.
This project made possible by National Science Foundation Awards: #1115116