Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: foliose or rarely erect-subfruticose, small to medium sized, moderately to loosely attached, lobate lobes: linear and discrete to somewhat more rounded, irregular or flabellate upper surface: gray to brown or dark brown, without a granular or crystalline pruina, but occasionally with an epinecral layer that becomes patchy and pruinalike, occasionally with coarse (multicellular) cortical hairs (15-20 µm wide at base and tapered to a point and 50-150 µm long), usually near lobe ends; a few species with sparse to dense, tiny, hyphal hairs (one cell wide and mostly 10-15(-25) µm long) on lobe ends upper cortex: paraplectenchymatous medulla: white or occasionally orange to red lower cortex: paraplectenchymatous lower surface: usually dark brown to black at least in older parts, a few species remaining pale, white to tan or pale brown, sparsely to moderately rhizinate; rhizines: usually concolorous with the lower surface, simple or in a few species becoming rather sparsely squarrosely branched Apothecia: with thalline exciple asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: Physcia-type or Pachysporaria-type, brown, 1-septate, 16-28 x 5.5-11 µm Pycnidia: blackened and immersed or weakly emergent conidia: ellipsoid, 2.5-4 x c. 1 µm, in one species cylindrical and 7-12 µm long Secondary metabolites: terpenoids, anthraquinones, but sometimes in variable concentrations or, in many species, lacking altogether Geography: primarily temperate or boreal, North America, Europe, Asia, Africa, South America, and Australia Substrate: on bark, wood, rock, soil or mosses. Phaeophyscia: occurring in the Sonoran Region
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