Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: foliose (rarely dwarf-fruticose), heteromerous, up to 0.23 mm thick, rosette-shaped, roughly circular in outline, 1-8 (-15) cm in diam., tightly to loosely adnate, lobate lobes: narrow, linear and stellate-radiating or broad-lobed and flabellate or cuneate (rarely terete), contiguous to imbricate or well separated, rarely branched or strongly dichotomously branched, usually flat but in one species terete; apices: usually rotund or ± truncate; margin: often deflexed (in broad lobed species) upper surface: light to dark gray, slate blue, or rarely yellow or yellowish gray (non-Sonoran species), smooth but in larger species often with concentric, curved ridges, with or without pruina, isidia or laciniae; soredia and pseudocyphellae: absent upper cortex: paraplectenchymatous, with periclinal hyphae running along the length of the lobes, colorless or rarely yellow; pored epicortex: usually present medulla: white, pale yellow or rarely orange-red photobiont: primary one a filiform cyanobacterium (Scytonema), secondary photobiont absent lower cortex: usually present, paraplectenchymatous, composed of periclinal hyphae running in the length direction of the lobes, often merging gradually with the medulla lower surface: yellowish white to pale tan to black, rhizinate; rhizines: white to gray or blue to black, simple, often projecting beyond the margin, usually dense, often forming a hypothallus, rarely sparse Ascomata: apothecial, biatorine (or lecideine), gymnocarpous, adnate or sessile; margin: sometimes with white hairs; disc: carneous to reddish or blackish brown or black, usually ± convex; hymenium: hyaline, I+ deep blue; paraphyses: simple or sparsely branched, septate asci: cylindrical or clavate, with apically thickened wall (I+ blue), 8-spored ascospores: globose or ellipsoid to fusiform, hyaline, simple, often with two oil droplets Conidiomata: pycnidial, laminal or marginal, immersed or sessile conidia: rod-shaped or bacilliform, simple, colorless, 3-6 x 1-1.5 µm Secondary metabolites: usually absent, but fallacinals, lichexanthones and unknowns occasionally present (non-Sonoran species) Geography: pantropical and subtropical, rarely extending into moist temperate areas Substrate: mostly on trees but also on rocks and soil (three species are folicolous). Notes: Coccocarpia was placed in a family of its own by Henssen (1963a), based on the unique ontogeny of the ascocarps. Here apothecial primordia with upright ascogones (and often with projecting trichogynes) are formed in a paraplectenchyma of isodiametric cells. Coccocarpiaceae contain four genera, viz. Coccocarpia, Peltularia, Spilonema and Steinera. The thallus of Degelia species (Pannariaceae) is very similar to that of Coccocarpia.
This project made possible by National Science Foundation Awards: #1115116