Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: small foliose, circular to irregular in outline, often forming rosettes, sometimes irregularly coalescing and spreading over its substrate, loosely adnate to adnate, lobate lobes: usually flat to convex but sometimes subterete, discrete, often loosely imbricate, elongate; apices: horizontal, sometimes ascending or semierect to erect, eciliate upper surface: lemon yellow to mustard yellow but in shade paling to yellow-green, dull to somewhat shiny, with or without pruina, with or without isidia or soredia upper cortex: paraplectenchymatous medulla: white, reticulate photobiont: primary one a chlorococcoid alga, secondary photobiont absent lower cortex: paraplectenchymatous, sometimes lacking lower surface: white to yellow, smooth to somewhat wrinkled, often rhizinate but sometimes with hapters; rhizines: simple or or sparingly branched Ascomata: apothecial, lecanorine, laminal, sessile; margin: concolorous with the thallus, persistent, smooth or sorediate or lobulate; disc: darker yellow than the thallus; epithecium: yellow-brown, granular; hymenium: colorless below, I+ blue; paraphyses: simple or sparingly branched, cylindrical or submoniliform, sometimes anastomosing below, septate; hypothecium: colorless to pale brown asci: clavate, Candelaria-type (apical dome I+ blue only in the lower part), 8-64+-spored ascospores: usually ellipsoid, simple to thinly 1-septate, uni- or biguttulate or with numerous oil-droplets, colorless Conidiomata: pycnidial, more or less globular, concolorous with the thallus or darker (walls pale), usually appearing as raised warts on thallus surface conidia: ellipsoid to narrowly ellipsoid, simple, colorless Secondary metabolites: pulvinic acid derivatives present in colored parts Geography: world-wide Substrate: common on rocks or bark, rarely on soil or mosses.
This project made possible by National Science Foundation Awards: #1115116