Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Life habit: lichenicolous, non-lichenized Ascomata: perithecioid, globose or subglobose, brown or black, ostiolate wall: cellular, brown or black brown centrum: usually I- but I+ blue or violet in a few species hamathecium: composed of branched and anastomosing, septate, persistent interascal filaments asci: fissitunicate, ±cylindrical or clavate, K/I-, mostly 4-8-spored ascospores: brown, 1-septate, ellipsoid or with the lower cell somewhat narrower, with or without a gelatinous sheath, ornamented or not Anamorph: pycnidial, black conidia: hyaline, simple, bacilliform Geography: world-wide. Substrate: thallus and apothecia of lichens.