Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life Habit: lichenized Thallus: squamulose to ± crustose, sometimes with enlarged peripheral lobes, often resting on a hypothallus of rhizohyphae that may be visible from above upper surface: bluish or brownish, smooth photobiont: primary one a cyanobacterium (Nostoc), secondary photobiont absent Ascomata: apothecial, biatorine; proper exciple: distinct cellular, cells rounded to oblong and 15-20 µm wide, thalline margin lacking; hymenium: I+ blue; paraphyses: simple, not or slightly thickened at apices, pigmented externally asci: with apical amyloid tubes (or plug), 8-spored ascospores: simple, colorless, ellipsoid, often apiculate at one or both ends and with a warted or ridged epispore Conidiomata: pycnidial, rare conidia: bacilliform Secondary metabolites: none detected Geography: widespread in warm temperate to subtropical, forested habitats Substrate: on soil, rocks and bark in sheltered, humid habitats.