Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: foliose, continuous, lobate lobes: narrow, sublinear to more rounded, moderately to loosely attached, eciliate upper surface: pale to dark brown (lacking atranorin, the pigment HNO3-), plane to foveolate, shiny or dull, pruinose or not, with or without isidia, soralia, and lobules; pseudocyphellae: common (but not universal), obscure to very conspicuous upper cortex: with non-pored epicortex, paraplectenchymatous medulla: white or rarely pigmented in the lower part, cell wall containing isolichenan photobiont: primary one a Trebouxia, secondary photobiont absent lower surface: tan to dark brown or black, shiny to dull, usually moderately to somewhat more densely rhizinate, the rhizines usually concolorous with the lower surface, not or little branched Ascomata: absent or present, apothecial, laminal, with thalline exciple asci: clavate and usually 8-spored (in two species, up to 32 spores/ascus) ascospores: simple and hyaline, ellipsoid to ovoid or almost globose, 8-18.5 x 4-11.5 µm Conidiomata: laminal, blackened and immersed conidia: acerose to cylindrical or more often bifusiform, 5.5-8 x c. 1 µm Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with unidentified brown pigment(s) and lacking atranorin; medulla lacking secondary substances, or, commonly with various orcinol para-depsides or ß-orcinol depsidones, less often with aliphatic acids or anthraquinones Geography: primarily in temperate, boreal or arctic/alpine areas of the Northern Hemisphere, or temperate areas of the Southern Hemisphere Substrate: bark, wood, or rocks (especially non-calciferous ones), sometimes with or on mosses.