Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Life habit: secondary invader of all sorts of plants, exceptionally lichenicolous, non-lichenized Ascomata: unknown Conidiomata: sporodochia, superficial, arising singly, convex, black conidiophores: macronematous or semi-macronematous, mononematous, hyaline to pale brown, densely packed together over a basal stroma, usually unbranched, short, ±straight, smooth or verruculose conidiogenous cells: pale brown, monoblastic, integrated, terminal, determinate, cylindrical conidia: solitary, dark golden brown, dry, acrogenous, subspherical, verrucose, muriform, with septa often obscured by the rough conidial ornamentation, with a pale basal stalk cell Geography: cosmopolitan Substrate: on plants, rarely on thalli of lichens.