Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: crustose, coarsely granular-papillate, often strongly verrucose, coarsely cracked-areolate, rimose or areolate, thin or rather thick; prothallus: absent areoles: 0.3-0.6 mm wide surface: whitish gray, yellowish green, or yellowish white, dull or weakly glossy Apothecia: on thallus, 0.5-1.5 mm in diam., sessile, slightly constricted at base disc: black, plane or later convex, not pruinose or rarely pruinose margin: lecideine, distinct, thin (about 0.075 mm), becoming excluded exciple: black (at edge, reddish within) or greenish black, without algal cells parathecium: reddish brown or yellowish brown (above, darker below), without crystals epihymenium: green, blackish green, without or rarely with crystals hymenium: hyaline, 55-95 µm tall, not inspersed; paraphyses: simple, rarely anastomosing or branched, slightly thickened apically hypothecium: reddish brown asci: clavate, lecanoral, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, broadly ellipsoid, ellipsoid, or ovoid, (7-)9-18 x 5-9 µm Pycnidia: not seen Spot tests: thallus surface: K+ pale yellow or K-, C+ yellowish red (orange), KC+ yellowish red (orange), P+ yellowish or P- Secondary metabolites: 2,5,7-trichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone, 5,7-dichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone, atranorin, isoarthothelin (= 2,5,7-trichloronorlichexanthone), or thiophanic acid (= 2,4,5,7-tetrachloronorlichexanthone). Substrate and ecology: on bryophytes World distribution: temperate Asia, Europe, and North America Sonoran distribution: Arizona.