Thompson, J., 1984. American Arctic Lichens: The Macrolichens.
Thallus adnate squamulose, chinky between the squamules in the center, gray-brown, ashy brown, ashy gray with whitish gray pruina when young, this disappearing; the squamules 0.2-1.5 mm long, 0.2-0.4 mm broad, the margins entire, over a black hypothallus; upper cortex 30-50 µ of paraplectenchymatous cells with 3-8 µ diameter. Perithecia immersed in the thallus, the summit forming 0.2 mm-broad warts; perithecium brown to black; periphyses numerous; paraphyses gelatinizing, the gelatin 1+ pale violet, at the base of the perithecium blue; asci cylindrico-clavate; spores 8, biseriate, simple hyaline, ellipsoid, 16-23x6-7 µ.
This species grows on soil or humus, especially in calcareous habitats. It is circumpolar, arctic-alpine, and boreal, ranging into New England, the North Central states, and California.