Global occurrence: Africa (incl Madagascar) | Eurasia – Europe | Americas – North America (incl Mexico) | Arctic. Substrate: rock – siliceous, siliciferous, acidic | rock, stones, pebbles – unspecified. Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts). Thallus: peltate, umbilicate; continuous, diffuse, effuse; [th] upper surface: grey(ish) | brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon); [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: absent | present; [th margin] cilia, cilioid structures: absent; [th upper surface] isidia, isidioid structures: present; [th upper surface] soredia, soralia, soralioid structures: absent; [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) upper surface: rugose, plicate, folded, pustulate, faveolate, wrinkled; [th] lower surface: black(ish); [th lower surface] specific structures: absent. Ascomata: absent | present; ascoma: apothecial, apothecioid – hymenial; [ascm] paraphyses/-oids: present. Asci: lecanoralean; [asc] tholus: thickened; [asc] tholus amyloidity (iodine reaction): present; [asc] tholus amyloidity pattern: entirely amyloid (= Catillaria-, Teloschistes-types etc). Ascospores: (median) 8.0; [asp] septa: present; [asp] perispore, epispore: not apparent. Secondary metabolites: present, gyrophoric acid. Primary photobiont: present, chlorophytaceous – trebouxiaceous, chlorococcoid. Secondary photobionts (eg in cephalodia): absent.