Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Squamules: up to 4 mm wide, elongate, imbricate, weakly concave to weakly convex upper surface: reddish brown or medium brown to dark brown, dull, epruinose or partly pruinose, smooth or sparingly fissured margin: white, straight, lobed upper cortex: up to 80-160 µm thick, composed of thick-walled hyphae with angular lumina, not containing crystals of lichen substances, sometimes containing calcium oxalate medulla: not containing lichen substances, sometimes containing calcium oxalate lower cortex: poorly developed, of anticlinally oriented hyphae, containing calcium oxalate lower surface: white to medium brown, K- Apothecia: up to 2 mm diam., laminal, immarginate even when young, black or dark brown, epruinose or white or yellow pruinose. ascospores: ellipsoid, 11-14 x 7-9 µm Pycnidia: laminal, immersed conidia: bacilliform, 6-7 x 1 µm Spot tests: upper cortex and medulla K-, C-, KC-, P- Secondary metabolites: none detected. Substrate and ecology: on calciferous rock in open habitats, mainly in conifer forests at 1680-3000 m World distribution: Asia, Europe (Urals) and western North America Sonoran distribution: rare in northern Arizona.