Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: adnate to loosely adnate, foliose, 3-20 cm in diam., lobate lobes: subirregular, elongate, slightly imbricate, plane, separate, 10-15 mm wide; apices: rotund, becoming dentate-lacinate with age, ciliate; cilia: sparse, simple, up to 2.5 mm long upper surface: gray with some blackened areas, smooth, shiny, sometimes white pruinose, strongly white maculate, frequently reticulately cracked with age soredia: granular, common, in linear, submarginal, soralia; isidia and pustulae: absent medulla: white with continuous algal layer lower surface: black with brown to mottled white naked zone peripherally, centrally rhizinate, rhizines scattered, simple Apothecia: very rare, substipitate, up to 6 mm in diam.; margin: sorediate; disc: imperforate asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: ellipsoid, 12-16 x 7-10 micro-m Pycnidia: not seen Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ yellow; medulla K+ yellow turning deep red, C-, KC-, P+ orange Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with salazinic acid (major) and consalazinic acids (minor). Substrate and ecology: usually on trees in open habitats, rarely on rocks World distribution: neotropics from Mexico to northern Argentina and southern Africa Sonoran distribution: Sinaloa, in the Sierra Madre Occidental.