Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: foliose, (2-) 5-12 cm in diam., adnate to loosely adnate, dichotomously to subdichotomously lobate lobes: sublinear, elongate, plane to subconvex, separate, becoming crowded and imbricate, 1-6 mm wide; margin: entire or dentate-crenate, sometimes lacinate; apices: subtruncate upper surface: gray, smooth, shiny, white maculate, sometimes marginally pruinose isidia: laminal to marginal, cylindrical, sometimes becoming procumbent, tips, mostly concolourous with thallus surface but tips may become blackened; soralia, pustulae, and dactyls all absent medulla: white with continuous algal layer lower surface: black centrally to margin; rhizines: abundant, black, dichotomous Apothecia: rare, laminal, sessile, 1-5 (-7) mm in diam.; disc: brown; margin: smooth, sometimes isidiate, epruinose asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: broardly ellipsoid, 10-12 x 6-8.5 µm Pycnidia: laminal, immersed conidia: bacilliform, 3-4 µm Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ yellow, UV-; medulla K-, C+ red, KC+ red, P- Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with evernic acid (major) and lecanoric acid (major or minor). Substrate and ecology: on bark of many species, fence posts, rocks and soil in open, montane to subalpine forests World distribution: throughout the neotropics Sonoran distribution: Sinaloa in the Sierra Madre Occidental.