Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: crustose, episubstratic, continuous or granulose to verrucose, thin or thick, usually up to 0.5 mm thick, rarely up to 1 mm; prothallus: bluish black to black surface: yellowish gray to yellowish green, becoming gray-green in shade, rather smooth, even, without soredia or isidia Apothecia: orbicular to irregular, sessile, not constricted at base, 1-1.6 mm in diam. disc: black in exposed, well-lit situations, pale blue-black, brownish red to +piebald with a darker true exciple in shade, plane, later often convex margin: distinct, finally +becoming excluded, strongly flexuose exciple: blackish green, bluish green to dull gray-blue, without algal cells parathecium: yellowish to reddish brown, sometimes with crystals or inspersed epihymenium: blackish green, bluish green to dull gray-blue, rarely olive, usually without crystals hymenium: hyaline, 55-105 µm tall, not inspersed to inspersed; paraphyses: simple, rarely anastomosing or branched hypothecium: +brownish orange (K+ bright red-brown) to yellowish to reddish brown, rarely hyaline asci: clavate, lecanoral, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid, 9-19 x 4.5-10 µm; wall: thick and smooth, not halonate Pycnidia: not seen Spot tests: thallus surface K+ yellow, KC+ yellow, C+ orange, P+ yellow Secondary metabolites: 2,5,7-trichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone, 2,7-dichloro-6-O-methylnorlichexanthone, 2,7-dichloronorlichexanthone, 2-chloronorlichexanthone, 3-O-methylasemone (=4,5,7-trichloro-3-O-methylnorliche xanthone), 3-O-methylthiophanic acid (= 2,4,5,7-tetrachloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone), 4,5-dichloro-3-Omethylnorlichexanthone, 4,5-dichloro-6-O-methylnorliche xanthone, 4,5-dichloronorlichexanthone, 4,7-dichloronorlichexanthone, 5,7-dichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone, 5,7-dichloronorlichexanthone, 5-chloronorlichexanthone, 7-chloronorlichexanthone, arthothelin (2,4,5-trichloronorlichexanthone), asemone (= 4,5,7-trichloronorlichexan thone), atranorin, chloroatranorin, isoarthothelin (= 2,5,7trichloronorlichexanthone), thiophanic acid (= 2,4,5,7-tetrachloronorlichexanthone), thuringione (= 2,4,5-trichloro3-O-methylnorlichexanthone), and granulosin (= 2,4,5-trichloro-6-O-methylnorlichexanthone). Substrate and ecology: on exposed or shady wood or bark World distribution: Australasia, Europe, and North America Sonoran distribution: widespread from coastal to moderately high elevations in Arizona, southern California, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chihuahua and Sinaloa. Notes: In L. elaeochroma the following chemotypes are distinguished: I) 2,5,7-trichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone [aotearone (rarely major compound); 2,7-dichloronorlichexanthone, 5,7-dichloronorlichexanthone, 4,5,7-trichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone, 2,4,5,7-tetrachloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone], ±isoarthothelin, ±thiophanic acid (arthothelin, asemone), ±atranorin, (rarely +chloroatranorin, II) arthothelin (thiophanic acid rarely; 4,5-dichloronorlichexanthon), ±atranorin (rarely +chloroatranorin, III) arthothelin (4,5-dichloronorlichexanthone), thuringione (4,5-dichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone), ±atranorin (chloroatranorin, IV) arthothelin (thiophanic acid, thuringione and 4,5-dichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone rarely, ±4,5-dichloronorlichexanthone (very rarely -), ±granulosin (4,5-dichloro-6-O-methylnorlichexanthone), ±atranorin (rarely +chloroatranorin, V) 2,7-dichloro-6O-methylnorlichexanthone (2-chloronorlichexanthone, 5-chloronorlichexanthone, 7-chloronorlichexanthone, 2,7dichloronorlichexanthone, 4,7-dichloronorlichexanthone), ±isoarthothelin(thiophanic acid, 2,5,7-trichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone).