Thallus: crustose, granular to verrucose-areolate, sometimes dispersed or reduced to sparse granules near apothecia; prothallus: whitish gray, +fibrous areoles: thin, opaque, ecorticate surface: yellowish white to yellowish gray or creamish yellow, smooth, glossy, epruinose, with an indistinct margin, esorediate Apothecia: sessile to constricted at the base, 0.2-0.7 mm in diam., lecanorine to almost biatorine disc: brown or blackish brown, plane or convex; epruinose margin: brown, lighter than disc, thin to thick, becoming excluded, prominent, smooth, entire, without a parathecial ring amphithecium: present, with sparse algal cells, with sparse small crystals or lacking crystals, ecorticate parathecium: hyaline, lacking crystals epihymenium: brown to olive-brown, with pigment and crystals dissolving in K, with coarse crystals dissolving in K hymenium: hyaline, clear; paraphyses: capitate, up to 4 µm thick apically, not pigmented; subhymenium: hyaline, 15-20 µm thick; hypothecium without oil droplets, hyaline asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, narrowly ellipsoid, (3-)4-4.5(-5) x (7.5-)9-11(-13) µm; wall: less than 1 µm thick Pycnidia: frequent, immersed, black conidia: bacilliform, 4-6 x 1-1.5 µm Spot tests: K+ yellow to red, C-, KC-, P+ orange Secondary metabolites: connorstictic acid (minor), norstictic acid (major) and salazinic acid (major or absent). Substrate and ecology: on bark of conifers and on wood at an elevation above 1500 m World distribution: circumboreal, known from Europe and North America Sonoran distribution: eastern and central Arizona, Chihuahua, and Sinaloa. Notes: Lecanora cadubriae is currently placed in Lecanora and appears not to be closely related to the Lecanora subfusca group, but it may eventually be placed into a separate genus. The bacilliform conidia and an ascus-type that resemble those of Biatora clearly distinguish this species from Lecanora s. str. Morphologically it resembles L. boligera and L. fuscescens. These two species are, however, readily distinguished by ascospore shape. The Hasse (1909) record from southern California has not yet been confirmed, although we have seen specimens from farther north in California.