Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: crustose, continuous or ±cracked surface: cream-colored, pale yellow or yellowish gray, smooth or uneven, often waxy, slightly shiny or dull, without soralia and isidia Apothecia: flush with the thallus or slightly raised, lirellate lirellae: short and oval to ±elongate, branched, slightly curved, 0.4-2 x 0.2-0.4 mm disc: open, dark brown or brownish black, partly with whitish pruina margin: excipular lips absent or inconspicuous, thalline margin, present but usually thin, often older (parts of) ascocarps with inconspicuous margins exciple: poorly developed, hyaline or yellowish basally, pale brown to brown laterally and above epihymenium: pale brown, c. 5 µm thick hymenium: hyaline, inspersed, 90-120 µm tall, I- paraphyses: 1.5 µm thick, tips pale brown, sparsely branched subhymenium: hyaline to pale yellow, 10-20 µm thick asci: 90-100 x 20-25 µm, 8-spored ascospores: brown, transversely septate, 6-8-locular, 25-35 x 6.5-9 µm, I+ red or reddish brown Pycnidia and conidia: not found Spot tests: cortex and medulla K+ red, C-, KC-, P+ yellow Secondary metabolites: norstictic and connorstictic acids. Substrate and ecology: on bark World distribution: western Europe as well as tropical to subtropical regions Sonoran distribution: central, coastal California (and south of the Sonoran area).