Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Life habit: parasitic or commensalistic on lichens Thallus: immersed, inapparent photobiont: absent Ascomata: apothecial, sessile to short-stalked, black, without pruina stalk: pale, dark brown or reddish brown capitulum: globose to obvoid mazaedium: well developed, black true exciple: well developed, constricted and frequently slightly thickened at the edge, consisting of dark brown to reddish brown or in part pale, +periclinally arranged and interwoven hyphae; hypothecium: hyaline or ochraceous yellow asci: cylindrical, disintegrating rather late, formed singly from ascogenous hyphae with croziers, I-, K/I-, 30-75 µm long, with uniseriate spores, 4-8-spored ascospores: simple, subglobose, 4.5-10 µm in diam., or ellipsoid, 4-16 x 3-9.5 µm; wall: thick, dark, in semi-mature stages with hyaline gelatinous coat; mature spores: smooth or ornamented with ridges or verrucae not rupturing at maturity Conidiomata: unknown Secondary metabolites: none detected; the ascomata of some species contain a pigment which changes to more intensely reddish when K is added as observed under the microscope Substrate: on lichens, mainly Pertusaria spp. on bark, sometimes also on rocks, rarely on Lecanora and Diploschistes Geography: widely distributed in temperate to tropical areas of both hemispheres Notes: Based on the spore measurements given, Fink's (1935) report of "S. microcephala (Sm.) Nyl." from the United States is probably based on S. tubaeformis rather than S. anglica; however, the reports of that species from Florida and California may be based on different species.