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Parmotrema simulans (Hale) Hale
Family: Parmeliaceae
[Parmelia simulans Hale,  more]
Parmotrema simulans image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Thallus: foliose, loosely adnate, 3-15 cm in diam., lobate lobes: subirregular, elongate, slightly imbricate, plane, separate, 4-10 mm wide; margin: strongly laciniate, apices: rotund, ciliate; cilia: simple, up to 2.0 mm long upper surface: gray, smooth, dull, strongly reticulately maculate soredia: common, coarse and granular, often on the lacinae, in orbicular soralia or spreading and becoming somewhat diffuse; isidia, pustulae and dactyls absent medulla: white with continuous algal layer lower surface: black with brown zone peripherally, rhizinate to the margin; rhizines: scattered to dense, mostly simple, black Apothecia: rare, substipitate, up to 5 mm in diam.; margin: entire to crenulate, sorediate, disc: perforate, brown, concave ascospores: simple, hyaline, ellipsoid, 12-17 x 6-9 µm Pycnidia: common, punctiform conidia: sublageniform, 4-6 x 1 µm Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ yellow; medulla K-, C-, KC-, P- Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with caperatic acid (major). Substrate and ecology: commonly on rocks, also on trees in open habitats World distribution: North and tropical America Sonoran distribution: common in SE Arizona and southwards in the Sierra Madre Occidental region of Chihuahua.