Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: loosely adnate, foliose, 4-12 cm in diam., membranous, lobate lobes: narrow, sublinear, contiguous to imbricate, elongate, plane, separate, 5-12 mm wide; apices: subrotund, ciliate; cilia: simple, up to 2 mm long upper surface: pale greenish to yellowish gray, smooth but cracked with age, shiny, becoming rimose, strongly effigurate maculate, becoming rugulose soredia: farinose, in linear to irregular, submarginal soralia; isidia and pustulae: absent medulla: white lower surface: pale brown to blackening, densely rhizinate, rhizines: black, simple Apothecia: not seen Pycnidia: not seen Spot tests: cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ yellow; medulla K-, C-, KC-, P- Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with norlobaridone (major). Substrate and ecology: frequent on bark and rocks in woodlands and forests World distribution: neotropics and subtropics, from Texas to Argentina Sonoran distribution: rare on oaks in the foothills of the Sierra Madre Occidental in northern Sinaloa.