Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Squamules: up to 4 (-6) mm diam.; epithecium pure or olivaceous green orange pigment: absent ascospores: narrowly ellipsoid to fusiform or bacilliform, simple or 1-septate, 14-22.5 x 4-5.5 µm Secondary metabolites: undescribed chemotype 9 (series of undetermined terpenoids). Host: cyanolichens Substrate and ecology: on rock, mainly on steep, shady rock walls in thorn forest vegetation, at 400-1090 m World and Sonoran distribution: rare in Baja California Sur and Sonora (filled dot). Notes: The subspecies is mainly recognized by its unique chemotype. In addition, ssp. asiae-centralis, ssp. coahuilae Timdal (Coahuila), and ssp. tristis, which also have partly 1-septate spores, differ in having smaller squamules and a brown epithecium. Ssp. asiae-centralis also contains an orange pigment (K+ red) in the hypothecium and inside the lumina of many paraphyses, asci and spores. Most similar is perhaps ssp. canadensis Timdal (Alaska and Canadian Rocky Mountains), which differs merely in the size of the squamules and in the chemotype.