Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Squamules: up to 2 (-3) mm diam.; epithecium brown, sometimes with a faintly green tinge orange pigment: absent ascospores: narrowly ellipsoid to fusiform, mainly 1-septate, 13.5-20.5 x 3.5-5.5 µm Secondary metabolites: terpenoids (chemotype 1). Host: cyanolichens Substrate and ecology: on soil and in fissures of calciferous rock in pinyon-juniper woodland, at 1460-1950 m World distribution: northern and central Europe, western North America Sonoran distribution: rare in northern Arizona (star).