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Peltigera hymenina (Ach.) Delise
Family: Peltigeraceae
[Peltidea hymenina Ach.,  more]
Peltigera hymenina image
Eimy Rivas Plata  

Global occurrence: Africa (incl Madagascar) | Eurasia – Europe | Americas – North America (incl Mexico) | Arctic.  Substrate: soil, clay, humus, turf, detritus, dead leaves | bryophytes – mosses, liverworts | bark, cork, plant surface – trunks, branches, twigs | rock – siliceous, siliciferous, acidic | rock – calcareous, calciferous, basic | rock, stones, pebbles – unspecified.  Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts).  Thallus: foliose (foliaceous), leaf-like; continuous, diffuse, effuse; [th] upper surface: grey(ish) | brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon); [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: present; [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) width [mm]: (median) 20.0; [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, squamules): distantly discontiguous; [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) upper surface: smooth, plane; [th] morphol substructures (eg lobes, branches): irregular; [th] lower surface: brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) | yellow(ish) brown; [th lower surface] specific structures: present; [th lower surface] rhizines, rhizoid structures: present; [th lower surface] rhizines, rhizinoid structures: unbranched, simple | furcately branched, furcate, forked.  Ascomata: absent | present; ascoma: apothecial, apothecioid – hymenial; ascoma [mm]: (median) 5.0; ascoma: pedicellate, stipitate, pedunculate, stalked; [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: strongly concave, excavate, urceolate | concave; [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) | red(dish) brown (if pale: orange brown); [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: epruinose; [ascm, if apoth] margin surface; [if perith] periostiolar area, ostiole, involucrellum: grey(ish) | brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon); [ascm] paraphyses/-oids: present.  Asci: lecanoralean; [asc] tholus: thickened; [asc] tholus amyloidity (iodine reaction): present; [asc] tholus amyloidity pattern: with amyloid tube, ring (= Collema-, Micarea-, Porpidia-, Psora-types etc).  Ascospores: (median) 8.0; [asp] shape: acicular (needle-shaped); [asp] length [µm]: (low) 60.0 (high) 80.0; [asp] width [µm]: (low) 4.0 (high) 5.0; [asp] septa: present, transversely septate; [asp] transversal septa: (low) 3.0 (high) 7.0; [asp] pigmentation: hyaline, colourless | pale brown; [asp] perispore, epispore: not apparent.  Secondary metabolites: present, 15α-acetoxyhopane-22-ol (dolichorrhizin) | 7ß-acetoxyhopane-22-ol (peltidactylin) | gyrophoric acid | methyl gyrophorate | tenuiorin | zeorin (hopane-6α,22-diol) | hopane-7ß,22-diol.  Primary photobiont: present, cyanobacterial.  Secondary photobionts (eg in cephalodia): absent.