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Nephroma arcticum (L.) Torss.
Family: Nephromataceae
[Lichen arcticus L.,  more]
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Stephen Sharnoff  
Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts) thallus: foliose (foliaceous), leaf-like thallus: continuous, diffuse, effuse [th] upper surface: yellow(ish) grey | yellow(ish) green [th upper surface]: epruinose [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: present [th margin] cilia, cilioid structures: absent [th upper surface] isidia, isidioid structures: absent [th upper surface] soredia, soralia, soralioid structures: absent [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) width [mm]: (min) 30.0 [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, squamules): contiguous, coherent (throughout the thallus) | distantly discontiguous [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) upper surface: smooth, plane | rugose, plicate, folded, pustulate, faveolate, wrinkled | uneven, undulate [th] lower surface: brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) | brown(ish) black | brown(ish) white ascomata: absent | present ascoma: apothecial, apothecioid – hymenial ascoma [mm]: (median) 20.0 (max) 30.0 ascoma: sessile, superficial [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) | brown(ish) black | red(dish) brown (if pale: orange brown) [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: epruinose [ascm] paraphyses/-oids: present asci: lecanoralean [asc] tholus: thickened [asc] tholus amyloidity (iodine reaction): absent ascospores: (median) 8.0 [asp] shape: elongate-fusiform, ellipsoidal-fusiform [asp] length [µm]: (low) 23.0 (high) 27.0 [asp] width [µm]: (low) 4.0 (high) 5.0 (max) 6.0 [asp] septa: present [asp] septa: transversely septate [asp] transversal septa: (median) 3.0 [asp] pigmentation: pale brown [asp] perispore, epispore: not apparent conidiomata: absent | present conidia: bacilliform, bacillar [co] length [µm]: (low) 3.0 (high) 4.0 secondary metabolites: present secondary metabolites: methyl gyrophorate | nephroarctin | phenarctin | usnic acid | zeorin (hopane-6α,22-diol) primary photobiont: present secondary photobionts (eg in cephalodia): absent | present primary photobiont: chlorophytaceous – trebouxiaceous, chlorococcoid.

substrate: soil, clay, humus, turf, detritus, dead leaves | bryophytes – mosses, liverworts | bark, cork, plant surface – trunks, branches, twigs | rock, stones, pebbles – unspecified.
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Lucy Taylor  
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Stephen Sharnoff  
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Stephen Sharnoff  
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Troy McMullin  
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Troy McMullin  
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Stephen Sharnoff  
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Stephen Sharnoff  
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Stephen Sharnoff  
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Stephen Sharnoff  
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