Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: foliose, orbicular to irregularly spreading, loosely attached, 4-10(-15) cm in diam., flabby when moist, coriaceous to somewhat papery when dry lobes: broadly laciniate, robust, 10-15(-25) mm wide, 20-40(-60) mm long, complex-imbricate centrally, with subrotund, discrete to overlapping apices; margins: entire, sinuous, occasionally minutely notched or incised, thickened below with a prominent, narrow rimmed, here and there with minute, glistening, projecting white to brown or black cilia (x 10 lens), sometimes also white pruinose above upper surface: dark slate gray to blue-black, suffused red-brown when moist, chestnut brown to red-brown or fawn-colored to olivaceous in patches when dry, markedly and often deeply wrinkled, punctate-impressed or subfaveolate to occasionally shallowly undulate centrally and wrinkled only towards the apices, with smoothly rounded ridges, with somewhat fawn-colored maculae giving a delicately marbled appearance to upper surface [best seen when moist (x10 lens)] and occurring extensively in photobiont-free areas and also as a marginal zone and around lobe sinuses, sometimes white pruinose, without isidia or soredia, phyllidiate phyllidia: flattened-coralloid and minute at first then to 1-2 mm tall in palmate clusters, occasionally larger and sublobulate, stalked, sparsely developed to densely clustered at margins and along thallus ridges near margins, or in small, congested groups on the upper surface medulla: white K- photobiont: cyanobacterial lower surface: tomentose from margins to center or with a pale cream colored or buff, with a glabrous zone at margins; tomentum: short and velvety towards margins, thickly and densely felted centrally, buff-brown to brown-black, with fascicles of longer blackened rhizines, 2-6 mm long cyphellae: scattered, more common at margins, rather few centrally, round, 0.1-0.6(-1) mm in diam., with a narrow, slightly raised margin, deeply urceolate, often obscured by tomentum, with a pale fawn-pink basal membrane Apothecia: very rare (only seen once), laminal, sessile, constricted at base, rounded, up to 2 mm in diam. disc: plane, pale red-brown, epruinose, translucent when moist, with a thin, slightly raised, entire proper margin, slightly darker than disc margin: pale cream-colored, slightly roughened-scabrid and with minute, projecting, silky white tomentum; epihymenium: pale yellow-brown, 8-12 µm thick hymenium: hyaline, 75-100 µm tall; hypothecium: opaque, yellow-brown, 85-105 µm thick asci: clavate 75-90 x 18-22.5 µm ascospores: hyaline to pale yellow-brown, fusiform-ellipsoid with pointed apices, vacuolate, 30-33 x 5-8 µm Pycnidia: occasional to rare or absent, scattered near apices, immersed, visible as small, pale-buff swellings, 0.2-0.5 mm in diam., with a central, punctiform red-brown to brown-black ostiole conidia: hyaline, bacilliform, straight, 3.5-5 x 1 µm Spot tests: all negative Secondary metabolites: none detected. Substrate and ecology: on shaded cliff faces, rhyolite boulders in stream beds, on Acer grandidentata and in alpine grasslands 950- 4100 m World distribution: Known previously only from Brazil but now Arizona to Veracruz in North America Sonoran distribution: Arizona and Chihuahua. Notes: The type of Stictina quercizans var. leucoblephara from Sierra los Orgaos, Brazil has rather narrow lobes with truncate apices and a distinctively punctate-impressed, rather than a heavily wrinkled upper surface found in the Arizonan specimens. Otherwise the Arizona material has all the characters of the Brazilian taxon and seems best placed with it.