Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: crustose, epiphloedal, effuse, continuous to rimose, thin (c. 100 µm thick), sometimes poorly delimited and reduced to dispersed granules surface: ashy to white or sometimes yellowish gray, minutely granulose or finely scaly medulla: not differentiated Ascomata: round or somewhat irregular, subsessile to sessile, constricted at base, 0.3-0.6 mm in diam., isolated or rarely aggregated disc: black, flat to slightly convex, epruinose to densely white pruinose margin: black, thin, becoming crenulate, granulose or verrucose exciple: dark brown internally, with hyphae visible in outer part, branched and interwoven, with reddish walls, occasionally incrusted with granules or crystals insoluble in K hymenium: hyaline, 70-75 µm tall, I+ yellow or red; paraphysoids: lax, loosely branched and interwoven, hardly anastomosed, 1.5 µm wide little or not enlarged apically, coralloid subhymenium: hyaline or pale yellow, 20-30 µm thick hypothecium: dark-brown to black asci: cylindrico-clavate, 50-60 x 13-14 µm, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, transversely 3(-4)-septate, straight or somewhat curved, fusiform with one end slightly attenuated, with two end cells longer than the two central ones, 21-29(-36) x (3.5-)4-5(-6.5) µm; wall: thin and uniform Pycnidia: not seen Spot tests: thallus K- or orange, C-, KC-, P- Secondary metabolites: none detected. Substrate and ecology: on smooth rarely rough bark of various trees shrubs in coastal areas World distribution: western North America (California) Sonoran distribution: southern California and Baja California.