Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: fruticose, shrubby to subpendulous, up to 8 cm long branching: dichotomously or irregularly branched, growing from a narrow holdfast branches: solid, main branches flat to +canaliculate, distal branches flat, often dissected, 1-3 mm wide surface: greenish yellow, smooth, shiny, sorediate soredia: present, granular, usually with short isidia-like branchlets, in marginal or laminal soralia pseudocyphellae: common on main branches, orbicular, semi-globose or tuberculate, often turning into soredia cortex: thin; chondroid strands: continuous, smooth Apothecia: rare, stipitate disc: flat to convex, without white margins; margin: concolorous with the thallus asci: elongate-clavate, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, 1septate, broadly fusiform, 12-15 x 4.5-5 µm Pycnidia: not observed Spot tests: cortex K-, C-, KC+ yellow, P- medulla: K-, C-, KC-, P- Secondary metabolites: cortex with usnic acid (major); medulla with boninic (major), 2'O-methylsekikaic and 4'-O-methylpaludosic acids (both minor). Substrate and ecology: on branches World distribution: throughout upper elevations of Mexico Sonoran distribution: rare in Sinaloa in mountainous regions above 1700 Notes: Ramalina asahinae is characterized by having flat or +canaliculate branches, round or ellipsoid and prominent pseudocyphellae, granular soralia often on branchlets, smooth chondroid strands in the branches, broadly fusiform ascospores and the presence of boninic acid aggregates. It might be confused with R. farinacea, a cosmopolitan species growing on branches, that differs in having farinose soredia without branchlets and in producing protocetraric, salazinic and/or norstictic acids. Ramalina asahinae also resembles R. shinanoana Kashiw., an Asian species, that differs in having cracked chondroid strands and in producing homosekikaic and sekikaic acids.