[Desmazieria evernioides (Nyl.) Follmann & Huneck, more, Ramalina duriaei (de Not.) Jatta, Ramalina duriaei f. densa (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr., Ramalina duriaei f. divisa Werner, Ramalina duriaei f. duriaei (De Not.) Bagl., Ramalina duriaei f. fistulosa Werner, Ramalina duriaei f. parvula Erichsen, Ramalina duriaei f. pusilla Erichsen, Ramalina duriaei f. tuberculata Werner, Ramalina duriaei var. duriaei (De Not.) Bagl., Ramalina duriaei var. saxicola Sambo, Ramalina evernioides Nyl., Ramalina evernioides f. densa B. de Lesd., Ramalina evernioides f. divisa Werner, Ramalina evernioides f. evernioides Nyl., Ramalina pollinaria var. duriaei De Not., Vermilacinia lacera (With.) Follmann & B.C. Werner ined.]
Thallus: fruticose, shrubby, up to 5(-10) cm long branching: palmately or irregularly branched, growing from a common holdfast branches: solid, main branches monophyllus with marginal secondary branches 3-10(-15) mm wide surface: greenish yellow to pale stramineous on the upper surface, greenish yellow to brown on the lower surface, dull, reticulately ridged soredia: present, laminal or marginal pseudocyphellae: rare, sparse or almost lacking, orbicular, flat cortex: very thin, composed of a single prosoplectenchymatous layer, lacking chondroid strands or sheath Apothecia: not seen for Mexican specimens Pycnidia: not observed Spot tests: cortex K-, C-, KC+ yellow, P-; medulla K-, C-, KC-, P- Secondary metabolites: cortex with usnic acid (major); medulla with bourgeanic acid (major). Substrate and ecology: on branches, rarely on rock World distribution: widespread in the Mediterranean region of Europe, South Africa, Chile and North America Sonoran distribution: common in Baja California and Baja California Sur. Notes: Differences of R. lacera with R. canariensis are elaborated under that species. Because of its thin, single-layered cortex lacking inner chondroid tissue, Choisy placed R. lacera in the genus Dievernia. However, this character alone is insufficient grounds to recognize a different genus, and consequently Dievernia is regarded as a synonym of Ramalina in this treatment.