Thallus: fruticose, shrubby, up to 3 cm long branching: moderately branched from a narrow holdfast branches: solid, plane or +canaliculate near the base, lanceolate, 13 mm wide surface: greenish gray to greenish yellow, smooth, shiny, sorediate soredia: granular in terminal, helmet-shaped soralia that develop on the ventral surface pseudocyphellae: very sparse, ellipsoid cortex: thin; chondroid strands: continuous, smooth, never forming bundles of hyphae Apothecia: not seen Pycnidia: not observed Spot tests: cortex K-, C-, KC+ yellow, P-; medulla K-, C-, KC-, P- Secondary metabolites: cortex with usnic acid (major); medulla with boninic acid (major), 2'-O-methylsekikaic acid, 2'-O-methylpaludosic acid (both minor). Substrate and ecology: on bark World distribution:: North, Central and South America (West Indies, Brazil and Peru) Sonoran distribution: Sinaloa. Notes: Two chemical races of Ramalina cochlearis, the sekikaic acid aggregate race and the boninic acid aggregate race, were reported by Kashiwadani (1988). In the Sonoran area, however, only the boninic acid race was found. Ramalina cochlearis might be confused with R. disparata Krog & Swinsc., a species reported from East Africa that differs in having dispersed soralia that never form helmet-shaped soralia.