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Buellia epigaea (Pers.) Tuck.
Family: Caliciaceae
[Catolechia epigaea (Hoffm.) Anzi,  more]
Buellia epigaea image

Global occurrence: Oceania – Australasia | Eurasia – Europe | Americas – North America (incl Mexico) | Americas – South and Central America | Arctic.  Substrate: soil, clay, humus, turf, detritus, dead leaves.  Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts).  Thallus: crustose (crustaceous) – episubstratal – unspecified; [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: absent.  Ascomata: absent | present; ascoma: apothecial, apothecioid – hymenial; ascoma [mm]: (median) 1.2; [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: plane, flat, flattened, expanded; [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: black(ish); [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: pruinose.  Asci: lecanoralean; [asc] tholus: thickened; [asc] tholus amyloidity (iodine reaction): present; [asc] tholus amyloidity pattern: amyloid with acuate axial body towards the apex (= Bacidia-, Buellia-, Ramalina-types etc).  Ascospores: (median) 8.0; [asp] length [µm]: (low) 14.0 (high) 26.0; [asp] width [µm]: (low) 6.0 (high) 12.0; [asp] septa: present, transversely septate; [asp] transversal septa: (median) 1.0.  Secondary metabolites: absent.  Primary photobiont: present, chlorophytaceous – trebouxiaceous, chlorococcoid.  Secondary photobionts (eg in cephalodia): absent.